Etymology
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lexicon (n.)

c. 1600, "a dictionary, a word-book," from French lexicon or directly from Modern Latin lexicon, from Greek lexikon (biblion) "word (book)," from neuter of lexikos "pertaining to words," from lexis "a word, a phrase; reason; way of speech, diction, style," from legein "to say" (from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')").

Especially of dictionaries of Greek, Syriac, Hebrew, or Arabic, because these typically were written in Latin, and in Modern Latin lexicon (not dictionarius) was the preferred name for a word-book. The modern sense of "vocabulary proper to some sphere of activity" (1640s) is a figurative extension.

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lexeme (n.)
1937, from lexicon + -eme, ending abstracted from morpheme. Related: Lexemic.
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lexical (adj.)
"relating to the vocabulary of a language," 1833, from a Latinized form of Greek lexikos "pertaining to words" (see lexicon) + -al (1). Related: Lexically.
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lexicographer (n.)
"a dictionary-writer," 1650s, perhaps based on French lexicographe "lexicographer," from a Latinized form of Greek lexikographos, from lexikon "wordbook" (see lexicon) + -graphos "writer," from graphein "to write" (see -graphy).
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micromania (n.)

1879, "A form of mania in which the patient thinks himself, or some part of himself, to be reduced in size" ["Sydenham Society's Lexicon of Medicine and the Allied Sciences"], from Greek mikros "small" (see micro-) + mania. Also used in reference to insane self-belittling (by 1899).

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weakling (n.)
1520s, coined by Tyndale from weak (adj.) + -ling as a loan-translation of Luther's Weichling "effeminate man" (from German weich "soft") in I Corinthians vi.9, where the Greek is malakoi, from malakos "soft, soft to the touch," "Like the Lat. mollis, metaph. and in a bad sense: effeminate, of a catamite, a male who submits his body to unnatural lewdness" ["Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament"].
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non-access (n.)

"lack of access," 1745, from non- + access (n.). Especially in law, "impossibility of access for sexual intercourse," as when a husband is out of the country in military service or at sea longer than the time of gestation of a child. "[W]hen a husband could not, in the course of nature, by reason of his absence, have been the father of his wife's child, the child is a bastard" ["Wharton's Law Lexicon," London, 1883].

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hijab (n.)

veil worn by some Muslim women, by 1906 in this sense in bilingual dictionaries; in classical Arabic it meant "partition, screen, curtain," and also generally "rules of modesty and dress for females;" from root h-j-b. It is defined in an 1800 English lexicon of "the Hindoostanee language" as "modesty, shame," and in other such dictionaries c. 1800 it has connotations of "to cover, hide, conceal." The 1906 dictionary also has hijab as "modesty."

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cottabus (n.)
a Sicilian game ... much in vogue at the drinking parties of young men at Athens. The simplest mode was when each threw the wine left in his cup, so as to strike smartly in a metal basin, at the same time invoking his mistress' name; if the whole fell with a distinct sound into the basin, it was a sign he stood well with her .... The game soon became complicated and was played in various ways. [Liddell and Scott, "Greek-English Lexicon," 1901]

Beeks writes that kottabos "indicated not only the game itself, but also several objects and movements used in it," so, "[a]s the original meaning of [kottabos] is unknown, all etymologies are necessarily uncertain."

There also was a denominative verb, kottabizein, "to play kottabos," also euphemistic for "to vomit."

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paraclete (n.)

mid-15c., Paraclit, a title of the Holy Spirit, from Old French paraclet (13c.), from Medieval Latin paracletus, from a Church Latin rendering of Greek paraklētos "advocate, intercessor, legal assistant," noun use of an adjective meaning "called to one's aid," from parakalein "to call to one's aid," in later use "to comfort, to console," from para (see para- (1)) + kalein "to call" (from PIE root *kele- (2) "to shout").

[I]n the widest sense, a helper, succorer, aider, assistant; so of the Holy Spirit destined to take the place of Christ with the apostles (after his ascension to the Father), to lead them to a deeper knowledge of gospel truth, and to give them the divine strength needed to enable them to undergo trials and persecutions on behalf of the divine kingdom .... [Thayer, "A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament," 1889]

But also sometimes translated in English bibles as Advocate, on the notion of "intercession." The word was earlier borrowed directly from Latin as paraclitus (early 13c.).

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