Etymology
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lapse (v.)
early 15c., to go by, pass (of time), from lapse (n.) and from Latin lapsare "to lose one's footing, slip, slide," from stem of labi "to slip, glide, fall." Meaning "fail in duty or faith" is from 1630s. Meaning "become void, revert due to some failure or non-action by the holder" is from 1726. Related: Lapsed; lapses; lapsing.
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lapse (n.)

mid-15c., "elapsing of time, expiration;" also "temporary forfeiture of a legal right" due to some failure or non-action by the holder, from Old French laps "lapse," from Latin lapsus "a slipping and falling, a landslide; flight (of time); falling into error," from labi "to glide, slip, slide, sink, fall; decline, go to ruin," which is of unknown etymology.

Meaning "moral transgression, sin" is from c. 1500; that of "slip of the memory" is 1520s; that of "a falling away from one's faith" is from 1650s.

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lapsed (adj.)
of persons, "fallen away from the faith," 1630s, past-participle adjective from lapse (v.). Originally especially to those who denied Christianity during prosecution.
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labile (adj.)
mid-15c., "prone to lapse," from Latin labilis, from labi "to slip" (see lapse (n.)). Hence, in chemistry, "prone to undergo displacement" (c. 1600).
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supralapsarian (adj.)
1630s, with -ian + supralapsary, from supra- + Latin lapsus (see lapse (n.)). The opposite of infralapsarian.
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prelapsarian (adj.)

"pertaining to the condition before the Fall," 1834, from pre- "before" + Latin lapsus "a fall" (see lapse (n.)) + ending from unitarian, etc.

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prolapse (v.)

"fall down or out," chiefly medical, 1736, from Latin prolapsus, past participle of prolabi "glide forward, slide along, slip forward or down;" see pro- "forward" + lapse (n.). As a noun, "a falling down of some part of the body," from 1808. Prolapsion in a theological sense, in reference to a falling into sin, is from c. 1600.

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relapse (v.)

early 15c., relapsen, "renounce" (a vice, etc.), a sense now obsolete; 1560s as "fall into a former (bad) state or practice," from Latin relapsus, past participle of relabi "slip back, slide back, sink back," from re- "back" (see re-) + labi "to slip" (see lapse (n.)). Related: Relapsed; relapsing.

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elapse (v.)

"to slide, slip, or glide away; pass away with or as if with a continuous gliding motion," used of time, 1640s, from French elapser, from Latin elapsus, past participle of elabi "slip or glide away, escape," from ex "out, out of, away" (see ex-) + labi "to slip, glide" (see lapse (n.)). The noun now corresponding to elapse is lapse, but elapse (n.) was in recent use. Related: Elapsed; elapsing.

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infralapsarian (adj.)

1731, from infra- + Latin lapsus "a fall" (see lapse (n.)) + ending from unitarian, etc.

[In theology], the doctrine held by Augustinians and by many Calvinists, that God planned the creation, permitted the fall, elected a chosen number, planned their redemption, and suffered the remainder to be eternally punished. The Sublapsarians believe that God did not permit but foresaw the fall, while the Supralapsarians hold that God not only permitted but decreed it. [Century Dictionary]
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