Etymology
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big time (n.)
"upper reaches of a profession or pursuit," by 1909 in vaudeville slang. As an adjective by 1915. The same phrase was common in colloquial use late 19c.-early 20c. in a broad range of senses: "party, shindig, fun, frolic."
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time zone (n.)

by 1885, from time (n.) + zone (n.). As in Britain and France, the movement to regulate time nationally came from the railroads.

Previous to 1883 the methods of measuring time in the United States were so varied and so numerous as to be ludicrous. There were 50 different standards used in the United States, and on one road between New York and Boston, whose actual difference is 12 minutes, there were three distinct standards of time. Even small towns had two different standards one known as "town" or local time and the other "railroad" time.
... At noon on November 18, 1883, there was a general resetting of watches and clocks all over the United States and Canada, and the four great time zones, one hour apart, into which the country was divided came into being. So smoothly did the plan work that the general readjustment was accomplished without great difficulty and it has worked satisfactorily ever since. [Railroad Trainman, September 1909]
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pro tempore 

"temporary," Latin, literally "for the time (being)," from pro "for" (see pro-) + ablative singular of tempus "time" (see temporal). Abbreviated form pro tem is attested by 1828.

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jet lag (n.)
also jetlag, 1966, from jet (n.1) in the "airplane" sense + lag (n.). Also known in early days as time zone syndrome.
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post meridiem 

"after noon, occurring after the sun has passed the meridian," applied to the time between noon and midnight, 1640s, Latin, from post "after" (see post-) + accusative of meridies "midday, noon" (see meridian).

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Anno Hegirae 
Medieval Latin, "in the year of the hegira," the flight of Muhammad from Mecca, 622 C.E., from which Muslims reckon time; from ablative of annus "year" (see annual (adj.)) + genitive of hegira. Abbreviated A.H.
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Eiffel Tower 
erected in the Champ-de-Mars for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889; at 984.25 feet the world's tallest structure at the time. Designed by French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923).
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charley horse (n.)
1887, sporting slang, origin obscure, probably from somebody's long-forgotten lame racehorse. Charley horse seems to have been a name for a horse or a type of horse (perhaps especially a lame one) around that time.
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Capri pants 
1956 (said to have been designed c. 1948), from Capri, Italian island; so called perhaps because they were first popular in Capri, which was emerging as a European holiday destination about this time (compare Bermuda shorts).
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white feather (n.)
as a symbol of cowardice, 1785, said to be from the time when cock-fighting was respectable, and when the strain of game-cock in vogue had no white feathers, so that "having a white feather, is proof he is not of the true game breed" [Grose].
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