Etymology
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lapis lazuli (n.)
"azure-stone, rich ultramarine silicate stone," early 15c., from Middle Latin lapis lazuli, literally "stone of azure," from Latin lapis "a stone" (see lapideous) + Medieval Latin lazuli, genitive of lazulum, from Arabic lazuward (see azure).
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cyan (n.)

"greenish-blue color," 1889, short for cyan blue (1879), from Greek kyanos "dark blue, dark blue enamel, lapis lazuli," probably a non-Indo-European word, but perhaps akin to, or from, Hittite *kuwanna(n)- "copper blue."

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ultramarine (n.)
1590s, "blue pigment made from lapis lazuli," from Medieval Latin ultramarinus, literally "beyond the sea," from Latin ultra- "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond") + marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE root *mori- "body of water." Said to be so called because the mineral was imported from Asia.
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azure (n.)
"sky-blue color; pigment or paint made of powdered lapis lazuli," early 14c., from Old French azur, asur, a color name (12c.), from a false separation of Medieval Latin lazur, lazuri (as though the -l- were the French article l'), which comes from Greek lazour, from Persian lajward, from Lajward, a place in Turkestan mentioned by Marco Polo, where the stone was collected.
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lapidocolous (adj.)
of beetles, "living under stones," 1888, from Latin lapis "a stone" (see lapideous) + colus "inhabiting," from colere "to inhabit" (see colony).
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inlapidate (v.)
"turn to stone" (trans.), 1620s, from in- (2) "in, into" + verb from Latin lapis (genitive lapidis) "stone" (see lapideous). Related: Inlapidated; inlapidating.
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sapphire (n.)
"precious stone next in hardness to a diamond," mid-13c., from Old French saphir (12c.) and directly from Latin sapphirus (source also of Spanish zafir, Italian zaffiro), from Greek sappheiros "blue stone" (the gem meant apparently was not the one that now has the name, but perhaps rather "lapis lazuli," the modern sapphire being perhaps signified by Greek hyakinthos), from a Semitic source (compare Hebrew sappir "sapphire"), but probably not ultimately from Semitic. Some linguists propose an origin in Sanskrit sanipriya, a dark precious stone (perhaps sapphire or emerald), literally "sacred to Saturn," from Sani "Saturn" + priyah "precious." In Renaissance lapidaries, it was said to cure anger and stupidity. As an adjective from early 15c. Related: Sapphiric; sapphirine.
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lapidification (n.)
"action or process of turning to stone," 1620s, from stem of Latin lapis "stone" (see lapideous) + -ficationem (nominative -ficatio), forming nouns of action from verbs in -ficare (see -fy). Related: Lapidify; lapidified.
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obsidian (n.)

"dark, hard, glass-like volcanic rock," 1650s, from Latin obsidianus, misprint of Obsianus (lapis) "(stone) of Obsius," name of a Roman alleged by Pliny to have found this rock in Ethiopia.

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