Etymology
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Manitoba 
Canadian province, named for the lake, which was named for an island in the lake; from Algonquian manitou "great spirit" (see manitou).
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Chad 

African nation, former French colony (Tchad), independent since 1960, named for Lake Chad, which is from a local word meaning "lake, large expanse of water." An ironic name for such a desert country. Related: Chadian.

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Niagara 
waterfall from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario, from a town name, perhaps from an Iroquoian language and meaning "a neck" (between two bodies of water); general sense of "a cataract, torrent" is attested from 1841; meaning " 'shower' of ringlets (true or false) in women's hair" is from 1864, also known as cataract curls.
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Michigan 

a name originally applied to the lake, perhaps from Old Ojibwa (Algonquian) *meshi-gami "big lake." The spelling is French. Organized as a U.S. territory 1805, admitted as a state 1837. A resident is a Michiganian (1813); Michigander (1848) seems to have been a humorous coinage of Abraham Lincoln in reference to Lewis Cass.

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Winnipeg 
originally the name of the lake, probably from Ojibwa (Algonquian) winipeg "dirty water;" compare winad "it is dirty." Etymologically related to Winnebago.
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Lernaean 
also Lernean, from Latin Lernaeus, from Greek Lernaios, from Lerne, name of a marshy district and lake in Argolis, home of the Lernaean hydra.
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Laughlin 
Gaelic Lachlann, earlier Lochlann, literally "lake-" or "fjord-land," i.e. "Scandinavia;" as a name, denoting "one from Norway."
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Athabaskan 

also Athabascan, Athapaskan, 1844 as a language name, from the name of the widespread family of North American Indian languages, from Lake Athabaska in northern Alberta, Canada, from Woods Cree (Algonquian) Athapaskaw, literally "(where) there are plants one after another" [Bright], referring to the delta region west of the lake. The languages are spoken across a wide area of Alaska and sub-arctic Canada and include Apachean (including Navajo) in the U.S. southwest.

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Tanzania 
east African nation, formed 1964 by union of Tanganyika (named for the lake, the name of which is of unknown origin) and Zanzibar. With country-name word-forming element -ia. Related: Tanzanian.
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Acheron 
1580s, fabled river of the Lower World in Greek mythology, from Greek Akheron, name of several real rivers, also the mythical river of the Underworld. The name perhaps means "forming lakes" (compare Greek akherousai "marsh-like water"), from PIE root *eghero- "lake" (source of Lithuanian ežeras, ažeras, Old Prussian assaran, Old Church Slavonic jezero "lake"). The derivation from Greek akhos "woe" is considered folk etymology. The name was later given to rivers in Greece and Italy that flowed through dismal surroundings or disappeared underground. Related: Acherontic.
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