Etymology
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lade (v.)
Old English hladan (past tense hlod, past participle gehladen) "to load, heap up, burden" (the general Germanic sense), also "to draw or take up water" (a meaning peculiar to English), from Proto-Germanic *hlathan- (source also of Old Norse hlaða "to pile up, load, especially a ship," Old Saxon hladan, Middle Dutch and Dutch laden, Old Frisian hlada "to load," Old High German hladen, German laden), from PIE *klā- "to spread out flat" (source also of Lithuanian kloti "to spread," Old Church Slavonic klado "to set, place").

In modern use restricted to the loading of ships; past participle laden was active in the language longer, but in 20c. was displaced by loaded (but a distinct word in the literal sense would be useful) except in particular phrases. Compare Lading.
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laden (adj.)
"loaded, weighted down," 1590s, adjective from the original past participle of lade.
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lading (n.)
early 15c., "act of loading a boat," verbal noun from lade (v.). From 1520s as "that which constitutes a load."
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unlade (v.)
"remove the cargo from," Old English onhladen; see un- (2) "reverse, opposite of" + lade (v.). Related: Unladen; unlading.
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layette (n.)

"newborn baby's outfit," 1839, from French layette, properly the box in which it comes, subsequently transferred to the linen, in Middle French "chest of drawers," from laie "drawer, box," from Middle Dutch laeye, which is related to lade, load (v.).

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ladle (n.)
"large, long-handled spoon for drawing liquids," late Old English hlædel "ladle" (glossing Latin antlia), from hladan "to load; to draw up water" (see lade) + instrumental suffix -el (1) expressing "appliance, tool" (compare handle (n.)).
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ballast (n.)
"heavy material used to steady a ship," 1520s, from Middle English bar "bare" (see bare (adj.); in this case "mere") + last "a load, burden," from Proto-Germanic *hlasta-, from PIE root *klā- "to spread out flat" (see lade). Or borrowed from identical terms in North Sea Germanic and Scandinavian (compare Old Danish barlast, 14c.). "Mere" because not carried for commercial purposes. Dutch balg-last "ballast," literally "belly-load," is a folk-etymology corruption.
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larboard (n.)

"left-hand side of a ship" (to a person on board and facing the bow), 1580s, alteration of Middle English ladde-borde (c. 1300), perhaps literally "the loading side," if this was the side on which goods were loaded onto a ship, from laden "to load" (see lade) + bord "ship's side" (see board (n.2)).

Altered 16c. by influence of starboard, then, to avoid confusion of similar-sounding words, it was largely replaced by the specialized sense of port (n.4). The Old English term for it was bæcbord, literally "back board" (see starboard), a term which remains in the other Germanic tongues.

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load (n.)

c. 1200, lode, lade "that which is laid upon a person or beast, burden," a sense extension from Old English lad "a way, a course, a carrying; a street, watercourse; maintenance, support," from Proto-Germanic *laitho (source also of Old High German leita, German leite, Old Norse leið "way, road, course"), from PIE root *leit- (2) "to go forth" (see lead (v.1)).

It seems to have expanded its range of senses in early Middle English, supplanting words based on lade (v.), to which it is not etymologically connected. The older senses went with the spelling lode (q.v.). The spelling is modern. Meaning "amount customarily loaded at one time" is from c. 1300; meaning "a quantity of strong drink taken" is from 1590s. Meaning "the charge of a firearm" is from 1690s.

Meaning "a great amount or number" (often loads) is from c.1600. Figurative sense of "burden weighing on the mind, heart, or soul" is first attested 1590s. Meaning "amount (of work, etc.) to be done by one person" is attested in compounds from 1939 (first was workload). Colloquial loads "lots, heaps" is attested from c. 1600. Phrase take a load off (one's) feet "sit down, relax" is from 1914, American English. Get a load of "take a look at" is American English colloquial, attested from 1929.

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lathe (n.)
"machine for turning wood, etc., so it can be worked by a tool held at rest," early 14c., of uncertain origin, probably from a Scandinavian source. OED compares Danish drejelad "turning-lathe;" other compounds with the element suggest a sense "framework, supporting structure." Others see a possible connection to Old Norse hloeða "to lade, load, saddle (a horse)."
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