Etymology
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lack (n.)
c. 1300, "absence, want; shortage, deficiency," not found in Old English, of uncertain origin. Perhaps it is from an unrecorded Old English *lac, or else borrowed from Middle Dutch lak "deficiency, fault;" in either case probably from Proto-Germanic *lek- (source also of Old Frisian lek "disadvantage, damage," Old Norse lakr "lacking" (in quality), "deficient" (in weight)), from PIE *leg- (2) "to dribble, trickle" (see leak (v.)). Middle English also had lackless "without blame or fault."
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lack (v.)

"be wanting or deficient" (intransitive), late 12c., perhaps from Middle Dutch laken "to be wanting," from lak (n.) "deficiency, fault," or an unrecorded native cognate word (see lack (n.)). Transitive sense "be in want of" is from early 13c. Related: Lacked; lacking.

To lack is primarily and generally to be without, that which is lacked being generally some one thing, and a thing which is desirable, although generally not necessary or very important. [Century Dictionary]
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alack (interj.)
expression of sorrow or dismay, mid-15c. contraction of ah, lack, which according to Skeat is from lack (n.) in its secondary Middle English sense of "loss, failure, fault, reproach, shame." According to OED, originally an expression of dissatisfaction, later of regret or unpleasant surprise. Sometimes extended as alackaday ("alack the day").
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lackluster (adj.)
also lack-luster, c. 1600, "dull, wanting brightness" (originally of eyes), first attested in "As You Like It," from lack (v.) + luster (n.1). Such combinations with lack- were frequent once: Shakespeare alone also has lack-love, lack-beard, lack-brain, lack-linen. Outside Shakespeare there was lackland (1590s), of a landless man; lack-Latin (1530s), of an ignorant priest; lack-learning (1590s), lack-wit (Dryden), lack-thought (1829), lack-life (1889), and the comprehensive lack-all (1850).
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lackadaisical (adj.)
"sentimentally woebegone" [Century Dictionary], 1768, lack-adaysical (Sterne), from interjection lackadaisy "alas, alack" (1748), a ludicrous alteration of lack-a-day (1690s), an exclamation of sorrow or regret, from alack the day (1590s). Hence, "given to crying 'lack-a-day,' vapidly sentimental." Sense probably altered by influence of lax. Related: Lackadaisically.
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lacklustre (adj.)
also lack-lustre, chiefly British English spelling of lackluster (q.v.); for spelling, see -re.
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maladaptation (n.)

"faulty adaptation, a lack of adaptation," 1829, from mal- + adaptation.

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rudeness (n.)

late 14c., "want of cultivation or manners, uncouthness;" c. 1400, "plainness, lack of artistry," from rude (adj.) + -ness. From 1530s, "bad manners." Rudeship (mid-15c.) also was used in the sense of "lack of gentleness, roughness."

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invariability (n.)

"lack of variability or of liability to change," 1640s, from invariable + -ity. Invariableness is from 1650s.

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inveracity (n.)

"lack of truthfulness; an untruth," 1789, from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + veracity.

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