Etymology
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knowing (adj.)
"with knowledge of truth," late 14c., present-participle adjective from know (v.). From c. 1500 as "shrewd, sharp, smart." Related: Knowingly.
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conscious (adj.)
Origin and meaning of conscious

c. 1600, "knowing, privy to" (poetic), from Latin conscius "knowing, aware," from conscire "be (mutually) aware," from assimilated form of com "with," or "thoroughly" (see con-) + scire "to know" (see science). The Latin word probably is a loan-translation of Greek syneidos.

The sense of "knowing or perceiving within oneself, sensible inwardly, aware" is from 1630s, perhaps a shortening of conscious to oneself (1620s). Also compare the Latin sense evolution in conscience. From 1650s as "aware (of a fact)." Sense of "active and awake, endowed with active mental faculties" is from 1837. Related: Consciously.

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gnostic (adj.)

"relating to knowledge," especially mystical or esoteric knowledge of spiritual things, 1650s, from Greek gnōstikos "knowing, good at knowing, able to discern," from gnōstos "known, perceived, understood," earlier gnōtos, from gignōskein "learn to know, come to know, perceive; discern, distinguish; observe, form a judgment," from PIE *gi-gno-sko-, reduplicated and suffixed form of root *gno- "to know."

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know (n.)
"inside information," 1883, in in the know, from know (v.) Earlier it meant "knowledge, fact of knowing" (1590s).
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omniscience (n.)

"infinite knowledge, the quality or attribute of fully knowing all things," 1610s, from Medieval Latin omniscientia "all-knowledge," from Latin omnis "all" (see omni-) + scientia "knowledge" (see science).

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sciolist (n.)

1610s, "a smatterer, pretender to knowledge," a term of contempt, from Late Latin sciolus "one who knows a little," diminutive of scius "knowing," from scire "to know" (see science) + -ist. Related: Sciolistic; sciolous.

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Gnostic (n.)

1580s, "believer in a mystical religious doctrine of spiritual knowledge," from Late Latin Gnosticus "a Gnostic," from Late Greek Gnōstikos, noun use of adjective gnōstikos "knowing, able to discern, good at knowing," from gnōstos "known, to be known," from gignōskein "to learn, to come to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know." Applied to various early Christian sects that claimed direct personal knowledge beyond the Gospel or the Church hierarchy; they appeared in the first century A.D., flourished in the second, and were stamped out by the 6th.

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gnomic (adj.)

"full of instructive sayings," 1784, from French gnomique (18c.) and directly from Late Latin gnomicus "concerned with maxims, didactic," from Greek gnōmikos, from gnōmē "a means of knowing, a mark, token; the mind (as the organ of knowing), thought, judgment, intelligence; (one's) mind, will, purpose; a judgment, opinion; maxim, the opinion of wise men," from root of gignōskein "to come to know," from PIE root *gno- "to know." Gnomical is attested from 1610s.

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astrognosy (n.)

"knowledge of the fixed stars, their names, magnitudes, etc.," 1835, from astro- "star" + -gnosy, from Greek gnōsis "a knowing, knowledge," from PIE root *gno- "to know."

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cognoscence (n.)

mid-15c., "heraldic mark;" 1530s, "knowledge, act or state of knowing," abstract noun from the past-participle stem of Latin cognoscere "to get to know, recognize" (see cognizance, which is now the usual word).

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