Etymology
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kindle (v.)
c. 1200, cundel, "to set fire to, to start on fire," probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse kynda "to kindle, to light a fire," Swedish quindla "kindle," all of uncertain origin, + frequentative suffix -le. Figurative use (of feelings, passions, etc.) is from c. 1300. Intransitive sense "to begin to burn, to catch fire" is from c. 1400. Related: Kindled; kindling.

Modern sources do not connect it to Latin candela. In the literal sense, Old English had ontyndan "kindle, set fire to," from tendan "to kindle" (see tinder). The word was influenced in form, and sometimes in Middle English in sense, by kindel "to give birth" (of animals), "bring forth, produce" (c. 1200), from kindel (n.) "offspring of an animal, young one," from Old English gecynd (see kind (n.)) + -el.
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enkindle (v.)
1540s (literal), 1580s (figurative), from en- (1) + kindle. Related: Enkindled; enkindling.
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kindling (n.)
"material for lighting fire," usually dry wood in small pieces, 1510s, verbal noun from kindle (v.). Earlier "a setting alight" (c. 1300).
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rekindle (v.)

also re-kindle, 1590s, "set on fire again," originally and often figurative, from re- "back, again" + kindle (v.). Intransitive sense of "take fire or be animated anew" also is from 1590s. Related: Rekindled; rekindling.

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tinder (n.)
"dry, inflammable substance," Old English tynder, from or related to tendan "to kindle," from Proto-Germanic *tund- "ignite, kindle" (source also of Gothic tandjan, Swedish tända, German zünden "to kindle").
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allumette (n.)

"match for lighting," 1848, from French allumette "a match," from allumer "to light, kindle," from Old French alluminer, from Latin ad "to" (see ad-) + luminare "to shine," from Latin lumen (genitive luminis) "light" (from suffixed form of PIE root *leuk- "light, brightness").

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ignite (v.)

1660s (trans.), "kindle or set on fire, cause to burn," from Latin ignitus, past participle of ignire "set on fire, make red hot," from ignis "fire" (see igneous). Attested earlier as an adjective (1550s). Intransitive sense of "catch fire, begin to burn" is from 1818. Related: Ignited; igniting.

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light (v.2)
"to shed light; to set on fire," late Old English lihtan (Anglian), liehtan (West Saxon), originally transitive, "to ignite, set on fire," also in a spiritual sense, "to illuminate, fill with brightness." It is common Germanic (cognates: Old Saxon liohtian, Old High German liuhtan, German leuchten, Gothic liuhtjan "to light"), from the source of light (n.).

Meaning "furnish light for" is from c. 1200; sense of "emit light, shed light, shine" is from c. 1300. Buck writes that light is "much more common than kindle even with fire, and only light, not kindle, with candle, lamp, pipe, etc." To light up is from c. 1200 as "give light to" (a room, etc.); 1861 in reference to a pipe, cigar, etc. Related: Lighted; lighting.
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incandescent (adj.)

"glowing with heat, rendered luminous by heat," 1794, from French incandescent (18c.) or directly from Latin incandescentem (nominative incandescens), present participle of incandescere "become warm, glow, kindle," from in- "within" (from PIE root *en "in") + candescere "begin to glow, become white," inceptive of candere "to glow, to shine" (from PIE root *kand- "to shine"). In reference to electric light, from 1881. The verb incandesce (1838), originally in science, is perhaps a back-formation.

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conflate (v.)

mid-15c., "to mold or cast from molten metal" (a sense now obsolete), from Latin conflatus, past participle of conflare "to blow up, kindle, light; bring together, compose," also "to melt together," literally "to blow together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + flare "to blow" (from PIE root *bhle- "to blow").

From c. 1600 as "to bring together from various sources." In reference to text, "to form by inadvertent combination of two readings of the same words," from 1885.

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