Etymology
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cephalic (adj.)

"pertaining to the head," early 15c., from Latin cephalicus, from Greek kephalikos "pertaining to the head," from kephalē "head" (see cephalo-).

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-cephalic 

word-forming element meaning "having a head" (of a specified type), from Greek kephalē "head" (see cephalo-).

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bicephalous (adj.)

"having two heads," 1803, a hybrid from bi- + Latinized adjectival form of Greek kephalē "head" (see cephalo-) + -ous. Bicephalic in the same sense is by 1863.

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acanthocephalous (adj.)

in zoology, "having a spiny head," 1847, from acantho- (see acanthus) + Latinized adjectival form of Greek kephalē "head" (see cephalo-) + -ous.

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hydrocephalus (n.)

"accumulation of fluid in the cranial cavity, 'water on the brain,'" 1660s, medical Latin, from Greek hydro- "water" (see water (n.1)) + kephalē "head" (see cephalo-). Also the name of a trilobite genus. Related: Hydrocephalic; hydrocephalous.

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dicephalous (adj.)

"having two heads on one body," 1808, from Latinized form of Greek dikephalos "two-headed," from di- "two" (see di- (1)) + Latinized adjectival form of Greek kephalē "head" (see cephalo-).

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encephalo- 

before vowels encephal-, word-forming element meaning "brain, of the brain," from combining form of medical Latin encephalon, from Greek enkephalos "the brain," literally "within the head," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kephalē "head" (see cephalo-).

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macrocephalic (adj.)

"of or pertaining to a large head (of a person)," 1851, from Greek makrokephalos, from makros "large, long" (from PIE root *mak- "long, thin") + kephalē "head" (see cephalo-). Related: Macrocephalous"having a long head" (1810); macrocephaly.

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microcephalic (adj.)

"small-headed, having an unusually small cranium," either as measured against a certain standard or through disease or faulty development, 1845, from French microcéphalique, from Modern Latin microcephalus, from Greek mikros "small" (see micro-) + kephalē "head" (see cephalo-). Related: Microcephalism; microcephalous (1840); microcephaly (n.).

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anencephalic (adj.)

"having no brain" (biology), 1821, with -ic + Latinized form of Greek anenkephalos, from an- "not, without" (see an- (1)) + enkephalos "brain," "the brain," literally "within the head," from en "in" (see en- (2)) + kephalē "head;" see cephalo-. Related: Anencephalous (1834); anencephalia; anencephaly.

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