Etymology
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justice (n.)

mid-12c., "the exercise of authority in vindication of right by assigning reward or punishment;" also "quality of being fair and just; moral soundness and conformity to truth," from Old French justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction" (11c.), from Latin iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, just" (see just (adj.)).

Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit. ["The Federalist," No. 51]

Meaning "right order, equity, the rewarding to everyone of that which is his due" in English is from late 14c. The Old French word had widespread senses including also "uprightness, equity, vindication of right, court of justice, judge." To the Greek philosophers (Plato, Aristotle) the notion was of each thing in its proper sphere or serving its proper purpose; inequality of aptitudes and outcomes was implied.

In English c. 1400-1700 sometimes also with a vindictive sense "infliction of punishment, legal vengeance." As a title for a judicial officer, c. 1200. Justice of the peace is attested from early 14c. To do justice to (someone or something) "deal with as is right or fitting" is from 1670s. In the Mercian hymns, Latin iustitia is glossed by Old English rehtwisnisse.

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justiciary (n.)

"administrator of justice," 1540s; later as an adjective, "pertaining to the law" (1580s), from Medieval Latin justiciarius, from Latin iustitia (see justice (n.)).

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justiciable (adj.)

"amenable to law, subject to judicial trial," mid-15c., from Anglo-French and Old French justiciable "pertaining to justice or law," hence "proper to be brought before a court of justice," from justicier, from Latin iustitia "righteousness; equity" (see justice).

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judicial (adj.)

late 14c., "of or pertaining to a judge; pertaining to the administration of justice," from Latin iudicialis "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, decision of a court of justice," also the court itself, from iudex "a judge," a compound of ius "right, law" (see just (adj.)) + root of dicere "to say" (from PIE root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly"). Related: Judicially.

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Artaxerxes 

Persian masc. proper name, in classical history a son of Xerxes II, also a son of Darius, from Greek Artaxerxes, from Old Persian Artaxšaca, literally "having a kingdom of justice," from arta- "justice" + xšaca "kingdom."

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theodicy (n.)

"vindication of divine justice," 1771, from French théodicée, title of a 1710 work by Leibniz to prove the justice of God in a world with much moral and physical evil, from Greek theos "god" (from PIE root *dhes-, forming words for religious concepts) + dike "custom, usage; justice, right; court case" (see Eurydice). Related: Theodicean.

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tribunal (n.)

early 15c., "a judgment seat," from Old French tribunal "justice seat, judgment seat" (13c.) and directly from Latin tribunal "platform for the seat of magistrates, elevation, embankment," from tribunus "official in ancient Rome, magistrate," literally "head of a tribe" (see tribune). Hence, "a court of justice or judicial assembly" (1580s).

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judiciary (adj.)

"relating to courts," early 15c., from Latin iudiciarius "of or belonging to a court of justice," from iudicium "judgment, court of justice," from iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). The noun meaning "a body of judges, judges collectively" is from 1788 (judicature was used in this sense from 1590s).

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self-seeker (n.)

"one who seeks his own selfish interest, to the detriment of justice and mercy," 1630s, from self-seeking or else from self- + seeker.

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Eurydice 

wife of Orpheus in Greek mythology, from Latinized form of Greek Eurydike, literally "wide justice," from eurys "wide" (see eury-) + dike "custom, usage; justice, right; court case," "custom, usage," and, via the notion of "right as dependent on custom," "law, a right; a judgment; a lawsuit, court case, trial; penalty awarded by a judge," from PIE *dika-, from root *deik- "to show," also "pronounce solemnly."

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