Etymology
Advertisement
January (n.)
late 13c., Ieneuer (early 12c. in Anglo-French), from Old North French Genever, Old French Jenvier (Modern French Janvier), from Latin Ianuarius (mensis) "(the month) of Janus" (q.v.), to whom the month was sacred as the beginning of the year according to later Roman reckoning (cognates: Italian Gennaio, Provençal Genovier, Spanish Enero, Portuguese Janeiro). The form was gradually Latinized by c. 1400. Replaced Old English geola se æfterra "Later Yule." In Chaucer, a type-name for an old man.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
Rio de Janeiro 
literally "January River," named by explorer Amerigo Vespucci because he discovered it on Jan. 1, 1502, and so called because he incorrectly thought the bay was the estuary of a large river. See January.
Related entries & more 
*ei- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go."

It forms all or part of: Abitur; adit; ambience; ambient; ambit; ambition; ambitious; andante; anion; cation; circuit; coitus; commence; commencement; concomitant; constable; count (n.1) title of nobility; county; dysprosium; errant; exit; initial; initiate; initiation; introit; ion; issue; itinerant; itinerary; janitor; January; Janus; Jena; Mahayana; obiter; obituary; perish; praetor; Praetorian; preterite; sedition; sudden; trance; transient; transit; transitive; viscount.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit e'ti "goes," imas "we go," ayanam "a going, way;" Avestan ae'iti "goes," Old Persian aitiy "goes;" Greek ienai "to go;" Latin ire "to go," iter "a way;" Old Irish ethaim "I go," Irish bothar "a road" (from *bou-itro- "cows' way"), Gaulish eimu "we go;" Lithuanian eiti "to go;" Old Church Slavonic iti "go;" Bulgarian ida "I go;" Russian idti "to go;" Gothic iddja "went."
Related entries & more 
Gestapo 
Nazi secret state police, 1934, from German Gestapo, contracted from "Geheime Staats-polizei," literally "secret state police," set up by Hermann Göring in Prussia in 1933, extended to all Germany in January 1934.
Related entries & more 
grandiosity (n.)

1814, from French grandiosité; see grandiose + -ity.

The author now and then makes a word for his own use, as complicate, for complicated; and, still less fortunately 'grandiosity' (p. 343). [review of Joseph Forsyth's "Remarks on Italy" in Edinburgh Review, January 1814]
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
New Year's Eve 

"evening before the first day of the new year," c. 1300; "þer þay dronken & dalten ... on nwe gerez euen." The Julian calendar began on January 1, but the Christian Church frowned on pagan celebrations of this event and chose the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25) as its New Year's Day. The civic year in England continued to begin January 1 until late 12c., and even though legal documents then shifted to March 25, popular calendars and almanacs continued to begin on January 1. The calendar reform of 1751 restored the Julian New Year in England. New Year's was the main midwinter festival in Scotland from 17c., when Protestant authorities banned Christmas, and continued so after England reverted to Christmas, hence the Scottish flavor ("Auld Lang Syne," etc.). New Year's gathering in public places began 1878 in London, after new bells were installed in St. Paul's.

Related entries & more 
bock (n.)
strong, dark type of German beer, 1856, from German ambock, from Bavarian dialectal pronunciation of Einbecker bier, from Einbeck, Hanover, where it was first brewed; popularly associated with Bock "a goat." Brewed in December and January, drunk in May.
Related entries & more 
wiki (n.)
web page that can be edited by browsers, by 2002, abstracted from names of such sites (such as Wikipedia, launched January 2001), the original being WikiWikiWeb, introduced and named by Ward Cunningham in 1995, from Hawaiian wikiwiki "fast, swift."
Related entries & more 
anesthesiology (n.)

1908, from anesthesia + -ology.

Anesthesiology. This is the new term adopted by the University of Illinois defining "the science that treats of the means and methods of producing in man or animal various degrees of insensibility with or without hypnosis." [Medical Herald, January, 1912]
Related entries & more 
crossword (adj.)

as the name of a game in which clues suggests words that are written in overlapping horizontal and vertical boxes in a grid, January 1914, from cross (adj.) + word (n.). The first one ran in the "New York World" newspaper Dec. 21, 1913, but was called word-cross. As a noun, 1925, short for crossword puzzle.

Related entries & more