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jacket (n.)
mid-15c., "short garment for men," from Old French jaquet "short coat with sleeves," diminutive of jaque, a kind of tunic, which is of uncertain origin. Probably it is from Jacque, the male proper name, also the generic name of a French peasant (see jacquerie) with extended material senses as in native jack (n.). But possibly it is from or influenced by jaque (de mailles) "short, tight-fitting coat," originally "coat of mail," from Spanish jaco, from Arabic shakk "breastplate." Meaning "paper wrapper of a book" is first attested 1886.

Iakke, jakke "a short, close-fitting stuffed or quilted tunic, often serving as a defensive garment" is attested in English from late 14c. (from Old French jaque), and by c. 1400 was being used for "woman's short tunic." It is possible that jacket was formed in English as a diminutive of this.
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blue-jacket (n.)
also bluejacket, "a sailor" (as distinguished from a marine), 1830, from blue (adj.1) + jacket (n.).
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strait-jacket (n.)
also straitjacket, 1795 as a type of restraint for lunatics, from strait (adj.) + jacket (n.); earlier in same sense was strait-waistcoat (1753). As a verb from 1863. Related: Strait-jacketed.
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pea jacket (n.)

"heavy coat generally worn by sailors in cold or stormy weather," 1721, a partial loan-translation of North Frisian pijekkat, from Dutch pijjekker, from pij "coarse woolen cloth" + jekker "jacket." Middle English had pee "coat of coarse, thick wool" (late 15c.). Related: Pea-coat.

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Nehru 

in reference to a type of long, narrow jacket with a standing collar (popular in Western fashion late 1960s), 1967, from Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), first prime minister of independent India (1947-1964), who often wore such a jacket in public appearances.

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Mae West 
type of inflatable life jacket, 1940, military slang, in reference to the screen name of the buxom U.S. film star (1892-1980).
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windbreaker (n.)
type of jacket to keep off the wind (originally a kind of leather shirt), 1918, from wind (n.1) + agent noun from break (v.).
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cardigan (n.)
"close-fitting knitted woolen jacket or waistcoat," 1868, from James Thomas Brudenell (1797-1868), 7th Earl of Cardigan, English general distinguished in the Crimean War, who set the style, in one account supposedly wearing such a jacket while leading the Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava (1854). The place name is an Englishing of Welsh Ceredigion, literally "Ceredig's land." Ceredig lived in the 5th century.
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pantsuit (n.)

"suit of clothing for women, consisting of pants and a matching or coordinating coat or jacket," 1966, contraction of pants suit (1964), from pants + suit (n.).

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jerkin (n.)
"short, close-fitting men's jacket" popular 16c.-17c., 1510s, of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Dutch jurk "a frock," but this is a modern word, itself of unknown origin, and the initial consonant presents difficulties (Dutch -j- typically becomes English -y-).
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