Etymology
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Israel 
Old English Israel, "the Jewish people, the Hebrew nation," from Latin Israel, from Greek, from Hebrew yisra'el "he that striveth with God" (Genesis xxxii.28), symbolic proper name conferred on Jacob and extended to his descendants, from sara "he fought, contended" + El "God." As the name of an independent Jewish state in the Middle East, it is attested from 1948. Compare Israeli, Israelite.
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Simeon 
masc. proper name, Biblical second son of Jacob and Leah; also a tribe of Israel; see Simon.
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Eli 
masc. proper name, in Old Testament, the name of a high priest of Israel, teacher of Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "high."
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Dan (2)

name of one of the 12 tribes of ancient Israel or its territory, named for its founder; literally "he who judges," related to Hebrew din "to judge." In the Old Testament, it occupied the northernmost part of Israel, hence its use proverbially for "utmost extremity," as in from Dan to Beersheba (the southernmost region), 1738. Related: Danite.

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Judah 
masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob by Leah, also the name of a tribe of Israel, from Hebrew Yehudah, from stem of y-d-h, literally "praised."
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Saul 
masc. proper name, Biblical first king of Israel, from Latin Saul, from Hebrew Shaul, literally "asked for," passive participle of sha'al "he asked for."
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Issachar 
son of Jacob by Leah (Old Testament) and name of a biblical tribe of Israel, from Greek issakhar, from Hebrew Yissakhar, probably [Klein] from Hebrew yesh sakhar "there is a reward" (see Genesis xxx.18).
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Ezekiel 
masc. proper name; in Old Testament, name of a book and of one of the great prophets of Israel, from Late Latin Ezechiel, from Greek Iezekiel, from Hebrew Yehezqel, literally "God strengthens," from hazaq "he was strong, he strengthened" + El "God."
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Jehu 
"fast, skillful driver," 1680s, from Jehu, a king of Israel in the Old Testament, who "driveth furiously" (II Kings ix.20). Sometimes also a generic name for "a coachman."
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Ephraim 
masc. personal name, in Old Testament the younger son of Joseph, also the name of the tribe descended from him, and sometimes used figuratively for "Kingdom of Israel;" Greek form of Hebrew Ephrayim, a derivative of parah "was fruitful" (related to Aramaic pera "fruit").
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