Etymology
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Israeli (n.)
"citizen of the state of Israel," 1948, from Israel + Hebrew national designation suffix -i. Also used in English as the adjective (1948). It distinguishes the citizens of the modern state from the ancient people who had been known in English since 14c. as Israelites (see Israelite).
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Israelite (n.)
mid-14c., "a Jew; one of the people of ancient Israel, a descendant of Israel or Jacob," from Latin israelita, from Greek Israelites, from Israel (see Israel). The Middle English adjective was Israelish (Old English Israelisc), sometimes Israelitish (Coverdale, 1530s); Israelitic (c. 1600, from Late Latin Israeliticus).
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Likud (n.)
nationalist coalition party formed in Israel 1973, from Hebrew, literally "union, combination."
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Sabra (n.)

"Jew born in Palestine" (or, after 1948, Israel), 1945, from Modern Hebrew sabrah, literally "prickly pear."

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Carmel 
mountain in northern Israel, from Latin Carmel, from Greek Karmel, from Hebrew karmel "garden, fertile field."
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Kings 
biblical book (in the Christian bible two books), late 14c., so called because it tells the histories of the kings of Judah and Israel (except Samuel's and most of David's).
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Jephthah 
biblical judge of Israel, from Greek Iephthae, from Hebrew Yiphtah, literally "God opens," imperfective of pathah "he opened" (compare pethah "opening, entrance").
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jezebel (n.)
"impudent woman," 1550s, after Jezebel, the wicked Tyrean princess who married Ahab, king of Israel (I Kings xxi), from Hebrew Izebhel, "a name of uncertain origin and meaning" [Klein].
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jeroboam (n.)
type of large wine bottle, 1816, from Biblical name Jeroboam, "a mighty man of valour" (I Kings xi.28) "who made Israel to sin" (xiv.16), from Hebrew Yarobh'am, literally "let the people increase."
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refusenik (n.)

"Soviet Jew who has been refused permission to emigrate to Israel," 1975, a partial translation (with English refuse (v.)) of Russian otkaznik, from otkazat "to refuse." Also see -nik. English agent noun refuser is attested from late 15c.

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