Etymology
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Israel 
Old English Israel, "the Jewish people, the Hebrew nation," from Latin Israel, from Greek, from Hebrew yisra'el "he that striveth with God" (Genesis xxxii.28), symbolic proper name conferred on Jacob and extended to his descendants, from sara "he fought, contended" + El "God." As the name of an independent Jewish state in the Middle East, it is attested from 1948. Compare Israeli, Israelite.
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Israeli (n.)
"citizen of the state of Israel," 1948, from Israel + Hebrew national designation suffix -i. Also used in English as the adjective (1948). It distinguishes the citizens of the modern state from the ancient people who had been known in English since 14c. as Israelites (see Israelite).
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Israelite (n.)
mid-14c., "a Jew; one of the people of ancient Israel, a descendant of Israel or Jacob," from Latin israelita, from Greek Israelites, from Israel (see Israel). The Middle English adjective was Israelish (Old English Israelisc), sometimes Israelitish (Coverdale, 1530s); Israelitic (c. 1600, from Late Latin Israeliticus).
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Simeon 
masc. proper name, Biblical second son of Jacob and Leah; also a tribe of Israel; see Simon.
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Eli 
masc. proper name, in Old Testament, the name of a high priest of Israel, teacher of Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "high."
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Dan (2)

name of one of the 12 tribes of ancient Israel or its territory, named for its founder; literally "he who judges," related to Hebrew din "to judge." In the Old Testament, it occupied the northernmost part of Israel, hence its use proverbially for "utmost extremity," as in from Dan to Beersheba (the southernmost region), 1738. Related: Danite.

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Likud (n.)
nationalist coalition party formed in Israel 1973, from Hebrew, literally "union, combination."
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Sabra (n.)

"Jew born in Palestine" (or, after 1948, Israel), 1945, from Modern Hebrew sabrah, literally "prickly pear."

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Carmel 
mountain in northern Israel, from Latin Carmel, from Greek Karmel, from Hebrew karmel "garden, fertile field."
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Judah 
masc. proper name, biblical son of Jacob by Leah, also the name of a tribe of Israel, from Hebrew Yehudah, from stem of y-d-h, literally "praised."
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