Etymology
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isotope (n.)
1913, literally "having the same place," from Greek isos "equal" (see iso-) + topos "place" (see topos); so called because, despite having different atomic weights, the various forms of an element occupy the same place on the periodic table. Introduced by British chemist Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) on suggestion of his friend, the Scottish writer and doctor Margaret Todd (c. 1859-1918). Related: Isotopic.
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radioisotope (n.)

"a radioactive isotope," 1946, from radio-, combining form of radiation, + isotope.

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nuclide (n.)

an alternative word for isotope, 1947, from nucleus + -ide.

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radio-carbon (n.)

"carbon-14," a radioactive isotope of carbon, 1940, from radio-, combining form of radioactive, + carbon. Radio-carbon dating is attested from 1949 (the carbon-14 in organic matter decays at a known rate from the time of death).

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enrich (v.)
late 14c., "to make wealthy," from Old French enrichir "enrich, enlarge," from en- "make, put in" (see en- (1)) + riche "rich" (see rich). Figurative sense "supply with abundance of something desirable" is from 1590s. Meaning "to fertilize" is from c. 1600. Scientific sense of "to increase the abundance of a particular isotope in some material" is first attested 1945. Related: Enriched; enriching.
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carbon (n.)
non-metallic element occurring naturally as diamond, graphite, or charcoal, 1789, coined 1787 in French by Lavoisier as charbone, from Latin carbonem (nominative carbo) "a coal, glowing coal; charcoal," from PIE root *ker- (3) "heat, fire."

Carbon 14, long-lived radioactive isotope used in dating organic deposits, is from 1936. Carbon-dating (using carbon 14) is recorded from 1958. Carbon cycle is attested from 1912; carbon footprint was in use by 2001. Carbon-paper "paper faced with carbon, used between two sheets for reproduction on the lower of what is drawn or written on the upper" is from 1855, earlier it was carbonic paper (1850).
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