Etymology
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isolate (v.)

"to set or place apart, to detach so as to make alone," by 1786, a back-formation from isolated (q.v.).

The translation of this work is well performed, excepting that fault from which few translations are wholly exempt, and which is daily tending to corrupt our language, the adoption of French expressions. We have here evasion for escape, twice or more times repeated; brigands very frequently; we have the unnecessary and foolish word isolate; and, if we mistake not, paralize, which at least has crept in through a similar channel. Translators cannot be too careful on this point, as it is a temptation to which they are constantly exposed. [The British Critic, April 1799]

As a noun, "something isolated," 1890; from earlier adjectival use (1819), which is from Italian isolato or Medieval Latin insulatus.

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isolation (n.)
1800, noun of action from isolate (v.) or else from French isolation, noun of action from isoler (see isolated).
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isolable (adj.)
1832, from isolate (v.) + -able on model of violate/violable, etc. Isolatable is recorded from 1870.
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isolated (adj.)

"standing detached from others of its kind," 1740, a rendering into English of French isolé "isolated" (17c.), from Italian isolato, from Latin insulatus "made into an island," from insula "island" (see isle (n.)). English at first used the French word (isole, also isole'd, c. 1750), then after isolate (v.) became an English word, isolated became its past participle.

[F]or I think it very natural to suppose, that all the People of this isolated Country, (I ask Pardon for a foreign Word) should have one Language ... ["An Irregular Dissertation Occasioned by the Reading of Father Du Halde's Description of China," 1740]
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quarantine (v.)

"put under quarantine" in any sense, also figurative, "to isolate, as by authority," 1804, from quarantine (n.). Related: Quarantined; quarantining; quarantinable.

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Ainu 
people native to northern Japan and far eastern Russia, 1819, from the Ainu self-designation, literally "man, human." Once considered to be Caucasian, based on their appearance; DNA testing has disproved this. Their language is an isolate with no known relatives.
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barrage (n.)
1859, "action of barring; man-made barrier in a stream" (for irrigation, etc.), from French barrer "to stop," from barre "bar," from Old French barre (see bar (n.1)). Artillery sense is 1916, from World War I French phrase tir de barrage "barrier fire" intended to isolate the objective. As a verb by 1917. Related: Barraged; barraging.
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segregate (v.)

1540s, from Latin segregatus, past participle of segregare "set apart, lay aside; isolate; divide," literally "separate from the flock," from *se gregare, from se "apart from" (see secret (n.)) + grege, ablative of grex "herd, flock" (from PIE root *ger- "to gather").

Originally often with reference to the religious notion of separating the flock of the godly from sinners. In modern social context, "to force or enforce racial separation and exclusion," 1908. Related: Segregated; segregating.

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sequester (v.)
late 14c., "remove" something, "quarantine, isolate" (someone); "excommunicate;" also intransitive, "separate oneself from," from Old French sequestrer (14c.), from Late Latin sequestrare "to place in safekeeping," from Latin sequester "trustee, mediator," noun use of an adjective meaning "intermediate," which probably is related to sequi "to follow" (from PIE root *sekw- (1) "to follow"). Meaning "seize by authority, confiscate" is first attested 1510s. Alternative sequestrate (v.) is early 15c., from Latin sequestratus. Related: Sequestered; sequestering.
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