Etymology
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island (n.)

1590s, earlier yland (c. 1300), from Old English igland, iegland "an island," from ieg "island" (from Proto-Germanic *awjo "thing on the water," from PIE root *akwa- "water") + land (n.).

The second syllable (also in Old Frisian alond, Middle Dutch eiland) was added later to distinguish it from homonyms, especially Old English ea "water" (see ea). As an adjective from 1620s.

Spelling modified 16c. by association with similar but unrelated isle. Similar formation in Old Frisian eiland, Middle Dutch eyland, German Eiland, Danish öland, etc. In place names, Old English ieg is often used of "slightly raised dry ground offering settlement sites in areas surrounded by marsh or subject to flooding" [Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names].

Island universe "solar system" (1846) translates German Weltinsel (von Humboldt, 1845). An Old English cognate was ealand "river-land, watered place, meadow by a river." Related: Islander.

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islander (n.)
"native or inhabitant of an island," 1540s, from island (n.) + -er (1).
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eyot (n.)
"small island," from Middle English eyt, from Old English iggað "small island," diminutive of eg, ig, ieg "island" (see island). Ending influenced by French diminutive suffix -ot.
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Runnymede 

place in Surrey where the Magna Charta was signed, Middle English Ronimede, literally "meadow on the council island," from Old English runieg "council island," from run in sense of "council" (see rune) + ieg "island" (see island) + mede "meadow" (see mead (n.2)).

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jersey (n.)

1580s as a type of knitted cloth; 1842 as a breed of cattle; both from Jersey, one of the Channel Islands. Its name is said to be a corruption of Latin Caesarea, the Roman name for the island (or another near it), influenced by Old English ey "island" (see island); but it is perhaps rather a Viking name (perhaps meaning "Geirr's island").

The meaning "woolen knitted close-fitting tunic," especially one worn during sporting events, is from 1845. In American English, short for New Jersey from 1758. Related: Jerseyman.

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Kodiak 
Alaskan island, from Russian Kadiak, from Alutiiq (Eskimo) qikertaq "island."
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Nauru 

island in the western Pacific, by 1896, of unknown origin; formerly known as Pleasant Island (1798). Related: Nauruan (1918).

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Ithaca 
western Greek Island, legendary home of Odysseus; the first element is perhaps Phoenician i "island;" the rest is unknown. Related: Ithacan.
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Samothrace 

Aegean island, from Samos + Thrace, representing the sources of two waves of settlers who came to the island in ancient times. Related: Samothracian.

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Bornholm 
island in the southern Baltic, from Old Danish Burgundarholm, from Burgundar "the Burgundians" (see Burgundy) + holm "island" (see holm). The Burgundians migrated from there to France 5c.
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