An obsolete verb insurge (from French insurger) "to rise in opposition or insurrection" was common 16c. For verb forms 19c. writers sometimes turned to insurrectionize or insurrect.
late 14c., risere, "rebel, insurgent, one who rises in revolt," agent noun from rise (v.). Meaning "one who rises" (from bed, in a certain manner) is from mid-15c. Meaning "upright face of a stair-step" is by 1738.
also mujahideen, "Muslim fundamentalist guerrilla," 1958, in a Pakistani context, from Persian and Arabic, plural of mujahid "one who fights in a jihad" (q.v.); in modern use, "Muslim guerrilla insurgent."
"war waged against a government by some portion of its subjects" (originally especially against God or Church authority), mid-14c., rebellioun, from Old French rebellion (14c.) and directly from Latin rebellionem (nominative rebellio) "rebellion, revolt; renewal of war," from rebellis "insurgent, rebellious" (see rebel (adj.)).
c. 1300, "resisting an established or rightful government or law, insurrectionist; lawless," from Old French rebelle "stubborn, obstinate, rebellious" (12c.) and directly from Latin rebellis "insurgent, rebellious," from rebellare "to rebel, revolt," from re- "opposite, against," or perhaps "again" (see re-) + bellare "wage war," from bellum "war" (see bellicose). By 1680s as "belonging to or controlled by rebels."