Etymology
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insubordinate (adj.)
1792, on model of French insubordonné (1787); from in- (1) "not, opposite of" + subordinate (adj.) "submitting to authority." Related: Insubordinately.
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rebel (v.)

late 14c., rebellen, "rise up against (a ruler, one's government, etc.); be insubordinate," from Old French rebeller (14c.) and directly from Latin rebellare "to revolt" (see rebel (adj.)). In general, "make war against anything deemed oppressive" from late 14c. Related: Rebelled; rebelling.

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rebellious (adj.)

"insubordinate, defying lawful authority, acting as rebels do or having the disposition of one," early 15c., from Latin rebellis (see rebel (adj.)) + -ous. Of things, "hard to treat or deal with," 1570s. Another old word for it was rebellant (early 15c.). Related: Rebelliously; rebelliousness.

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