Etymology
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inflation (n.)
mid-14c., "swelling caused by gathering of 'wind' in the body; flatulence," also, figuratively, "outbursts of pride," from Latin inflationem (nominative inflatio) "a puffing up, a blowing into; flatulence," noun of action from past participle stem of inflare "blow into, puff up," figuratively "inspire, encourage," from in- "into" (from PIE root *en "in") + flare "to blow" (from PIE root *bhle- "to blow").

Meaning "action of inflating with air or gas" is from c. 1600. Monetary sense of "enlargement of prices" (originally by an increase in the amount of money in circulation) first recorded 1838 in American English.
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hyperinflation (n.)
1925 in the economic sense, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + inflation. Earlier as a medical term in treatment of lung diseases.
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*bhle- 
bhlē-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to blow," possibly a variant of PIE root *bhel- (2) "to blow, swell."

It forms all or part of: afflatus; bladder; blase; blast; blather; blaze (v.2) "make public;" blow (v.1) "move air;" conflate; deflate; flageolet; flatulent; flatus; flavor; inflate; inflation; insufflation; isinglass; souffle.
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monetarist (adj.)

1914, "of a monetary character or having a monetary basis," from monetary + -ist. As a noun, "one who advocates tight control of the money supply to remedy inflation," by 1963. Related Monetarism (1963).

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emphysema (n.)

1660s, "distention with air or other gasses," from Modern Latin, from Greek emphysema "swelling, inflation" (of the bowels, etc.), from emphysan "to blow in, inflate; to play the flute," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + physan "to blow," from physa "breath, blast" (see pustule). Related: Emphysematous (adj.).

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stagflation (n.)

1965, apparently coined by U.K. politician Iain Macleod (1913-1970), from stag(nation) + (in)flation.

Attacking the Government's economic policy last night in the House of Commons, Mr. Iain Macleod (West Enfield - Con.) the Opposition spokesman on Treasury and economic affairs, described the present situation in Britain as "stagflation" — stagnation and inflation together. [Glasgow Herald, Nov. 18, 1965]
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inflate (v.)
early 15c., "cause to swell," from Latin inflatus (source also of Italian enfiare, Spanish inflar, French enfler), past participle of inflare "blow into, puff up," figuratively "inspire, encourage," from in- "into" (from PIE root *en "in") + flare "to blow" (from PIE root *bhle- "to blow"). Economics sense (of prices, currency, etc.) is from 1843. In some senses a back-formation from inflation. Related: Inflated; inflating.
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pout (v.)

"thrust out the lips, as in sullenness or displeasure," mid-14c., of uncertain origin, perhaps from Scandinavian (compare Swedish dialectal puta "to be puffed out"), or Frisian (compare East Frisian püt "bag, swelling," Low German puddig "swollen"); related via notion of "inflation" to Old English ælepute "fish with inflated parts," Modern English pout as a fish name, and Middle Dutch puyt, Flemish puut "frog," all from a hypothetical PIE imitative root *beu- suggesting "swelling" (see bull (n.2)). Also compare French bouder "to pout," also presumably imitative (and the source of boudoir). Related: Pouted; pouting.

As a noun from 1590s; "a protrusion of the lips as in pouting; a fit of sullenness or displeasure."

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