Etymology
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incumbent (adj.)
1560s, in relation to duties or obligations, from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens), present participle of incumbere (see incumbent (n.)). The literal, physical sense "lying or resting on something" is rare in English and first attested 1620s.
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incumbent (n.)
early 15c., "person holding a church position," from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position," noun use of present participle of incumbere "to obtain or possess," from Latin incumbere "recline on," figuratively "apply oneself to," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + -cumbere "lie down," related to cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). Extended to holders of any office from 1670s.
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incumbency (n.)
"state of being an incumbent," c. 1600, from incumbent + abstract noun suffix -cy.
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*en 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "in."

It forms all or part of: and; atoll; dysentery; embargo; embarrass; embryo; empire; employ; en- (1) "in; into;" en- (2) "near, at, in, on, within;" enclave; endo-; enema; engine; enoptomancy; enter; enteric; enteritis; entero-; entice; ento-; entrails; envoy; envy; episode; esoteric; imbroglio; immolate; immure; impede; impend; impetus; important; impostor; impresario; impromptu; in; in- (2) "into, in, on, upon;" inchoate; incite; increase; inculcate; incumbent; industry; indigence; inflict; ingenuous; ingest; inly; inmost; inn; innate; inner; innuendo; inoculate; insignia; instant; intaglio; inter-; interim; interior; intern; internal; intestine; intimate (adj.) "closely acquainted, very familiar;" intra-; intricate; intrinsic; intro-; introduce; introduction; introit; introspect; invert; mesentery.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit antara- "interior;" Greek en "in," eis "into," endon "within;" Latin in "in, into," intro "inward," intra "inside, within;" Old Irish in, Welsh yn, Old Church Slavonic on-, Old English in "in, into," inne "within, inside."
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pontificate (n.)

early 15c., "tenure of a pope;" 1680s, "time during which a pontifical office is held by a particular incumbent," from Old French pontificat and directly from Latin pontificatus "office of a pontiff," from pontifex (see pontifex).

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appertain (v.)
late 14c., "to belong as parts to the whole, or as members to a family or class, belong by association or attribution," from Anglo-French apartenir, Old French apartenir "be related to; be incumbent upon" (12c.), from Late Latin appertinere "to pertain to," from ad "to; completely" (see ad-) + pertinere "to belong to" (see pertain). Related: Appertained; appertaining.
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prop (n.1)

"a support, a rigid thing used to sustain an incumbent weight" (usually applied to something not forming a part of the object supported), mid-15c., proppe, probably from Middle Dutch proppe "vine prop, support; stop for a bottle," a word of unknown origin. Probably related to Old High German pfropfo, German pfropfen "to prop," which are perhaps from Latin propago "a set, layer of a plant" (see propagation). Irish propa, Gaelic prop are said to be borrowed from English.

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liturgy (n.)

1550s, Liturgy, "the service of the Holy Eucharist," from French liturgie (16c.) or directly from Late Latin/Medieval Latin liturgia "public service, public worship," from Greek leitourgia "a liturgy; public duty, ministration, ministry," from leitourgos "one who performs a public ceremony or service, public servant," from leito- "public" (from laos "people;" compare leiton "public hall," leite "priestess;" see lay (adj.)) + -ourgos "that works," from ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do"). Meaning "collective formulas for the conduct of divine service in Christian churches" is from 1590s. Related: Liturgist; liturgics.

In ancient Greece, particularly at Athens, a form of personal service to the state which citizens possessing property to a certain amount were bound, when called upon, to perform at their own cost. These liturgies were ordinary, including the presentation of dramatic performances, musical and poetic contests, etc., the celebration of some festivals, and other public functions entailing expense upon the incumbent; or extraordinary, as the fitting out of a trireme In case of war. [Century Dictionary]
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