"reduction of anything to ashes," 1708, from Latin ciner-, stem of cinis "ashes"(see incinerate).
"of or pertaining to ashes," 1750, from Latin cinerarius "pertaining to ashes," from cinerat-, stem of cinis "ashes" (see incinerate). The neuter form, cinerarium, was used as a noun for "a receptacle for the ashes of the dead."
"act of burning to ashes," 1520s, from French incinération (14c.), from Medieval Latin incinerationem (nominative incineratio), noun of action from past-participle stem of incinerare "reduce to ashes" (see incinerate).
Old English sinder "dross of iron, slag," from Proto-Germanic *sendra- "slag" (source also of Old Saxon sinder "slag, dross," Old Norse sindr, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch sinder, Dutch sintel, Old High German sintar, German Sinter), from PIE root *sendhro- "coagulating fluid" (source also of Old Church Slavonic sedra "cinder").
Initial s- changed to c- under influence of unrelated French cendre "ashes," from Latin cinerem (nominative cinis) "ashes," from or related to Greek konis "dust" (see incinerate). The Latin word was contracted to *cin'rem and the -d- inserted for ease of pronunciation (compare peindre from pingere). The French word also apparently shifted the sense of the English one to "small piece of burnt coal after a fire has gone out" (16c.).
Geological sense "coarse ash thrown out by volcanoes" is from 1774; cinder cone, formed around a volcano by successive eruptions of ash, is recorded from 1849. Related: Cinders.