Etymology
Advertisement
incinerate (v.)
"burn to ashes" (transitive), 1550s, from Medieval Latin incineratus, past participle of incinerare "reduce to ashes," from in- "into" (from PIE root *en "in") + a verb from Latin cinis (genitive cineris) "ashes," from PIE root *keni- "dust, ashes" (source also of Greek konis "dust"). Middle English had the word, from Latin, but only as a past-participle adjective meaning "reduced to ashes" (early 15c.). Related: Incinerated; incinerating.
Related entries & more 
Advertisement
cineration (n.)

"reduction of anything to ashes," 1708, from Latin ciner-, stem of cinis "ashes"(see incinerate).

Related entries & more 
incinerator (n.)
"device for waste disposal by burning," 1872, from incinerate + Latinate agent noun suffix -or.
Related entries & more 
cinerary (adj.)

"of or pertaining to ashes," 1750, from Latin cinerarius "pertaining to ashes," from cinerat-, stem of cinis "ashes" (see incinerate). The neuter form, cinerarium, was used as a noun for "a receptacle for the ashes of the dead."

Related entries & more 
incineration (n.)

"act of burning to ashes," 1520s, from French incinération (14c.), from Medieval Latin incinerationem (nominative incineratio), noun of action from past-participle stem of incinerare "reduce to ashes" (see incinerate).

Related entries & more 
Advertisement
cinder (n.)

Old English sinder "dross of iron, slag," from Proto-Germanic *sendra- "slag" (source also of Old Saxon sinder "slag, dross," Old Norse sindr, Middle Low German and Middle Dutch sinder, Dutch sintel, Old High German sintar, German Sinter), from PIE root *sendhro- "coagulating fluid" (source also of Old Church Slavonic sedra "cinder").

Initial s- changed to c- under influence of unrelated French cendre "ashes," from Latin cinerem (nominative cinis) "ashes," from or related to Greek konis "dust" (see incinerate). The Latin word was contracted to *cin'rem and the -d- inserted for ease of pronunciation (compare peindre from pingere). The French word also apparently shifted the sense of the English one to "small piece of burnt coal after a fire has gone out" (16c.).

Geological sense "coarse ash thrown out by volcanoes" is from 1774; cinder cone, formed around a volcano by successive eruptions of ash, is recorded from 1849. Related: Cinders.

Related entries & more