Etymology
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incapacity (n.)
1610s, "lack of ability, powerlessness," from French incapacité (16c.), from Medieval Latin incapacitatem (nominative incapacitas), from Late Latin incapax (genitive incapacis) "incapable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + Latin capax "capable," literally "able to hold much," from capere "to take," from PIE root *kap- "to grasp." As a legal term (1640s), "lack of qualification," referring to inability to take, receive, or deal with in some way.
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incapacitate (v.)
1650s in a legal sense; 1660s in general use, "deprive of natural power," from incapacity + -ate. Related: Incapacitated; incapacitating.
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deafness (n.)

"incapacity of distinguishing or perceiving sounds," late 14c., defnesse, from deaf + -ness.

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barrenness (n.)
late 14c., "incapacity for child-bearing" (of women); "unproductivity, unfruitfulness" (of land); earlier in a figurative sense ("spiritual emptiness," mid-14c.), from barren + -ness.
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sterility (n.)

early 15c., sterilite, "infertility, barrenness, incapacity to produce children," from Old French sterilite, from Latin sterilitatem (nominative sterilitas) "unfruitfulness, barrenness," from sterilis (see sterile).

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disability (n.)

1570s, "want of power, strength, or ability," from dis- + ability. Meaning "incapacity in the eyes of the law" is from 1640s. Related: Disabilities.

Disability implies deprivation or loss of power; inability indicates rather inherent want of power. [Century Dictionary]
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analgesia (n.)
"absence of pain, incapacity of feeling pain in a part, though tactile sense is preserved," 1706, medical Latin, from Greek analgesia "want of feeling, insensibility," from analgetos "without pain, insensible to pain" (also "unfeeling, ruthless"), from an- "not" (see an- (1)) + algein "to feel pain" (see -algia). An alternative form is analgia.
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intolerance (n.)
1765, "unwillingness to endure a differing opinion or belief," from Latin intolerantia "impatience; unendurableness, insufferableness; insolence," from intolerantem "impatient, intolerant" (see intolerant). There is an isolated use from c. 1500, with an apparent sense of "unwillingness." Especially of religious matters through mid-19c. Now-obsolete intolerancy was used in same sense from 1620s; intoleration from 1610s. Meaning "incapacity to bear or endure" is by 1844.
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detriment (n.)

early 15c., "incapacity;" mid-15c., "any harm or injury," from Old French détriment or directly from Latin detrimentum "a rubbing off; a loss, damage, defeat," from past-participle stem of detere "to wear away," figuratively "to weaken, impair," from de "away" (see de-) + terere "to rub, wear" (from PIE root *tere- (1) "to rub, turn"). Meaning "that which causes harm or injury" is from c. 1500.

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protector (n.)

late 14c., protectour, "a defender, guardian, one who defends or shields from injury or evil," from Old French protector (14c., Modern French protecteur) and directly from Late Latin protector, agent noun from protegere (see protection). Related: Protectoral; protectorial; protectorian. Fem. forms protectrix, protectryse both attested from mid-15c. Protectee is attested from c. 1600.

In English history, "one who has care of the kingdom during the king's minority or incapacity, a regent" (as the Duke of Somerset during the reign of Edward VI); Lord Protector was the title of the head of the executive during part of the period of the Commonwealth, held by Oliver Cromwell (1653-58) and Richard Cromwell (1658-59).

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