Etymology
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imperial (adj.)

late 14c., "having a commanding quality," from Old French imperial, emperial "imperial; princely, splendid; strong, powerful" (12c.), from Latin imperialis "of the empire or emperor," from imperium "empire" (see empire).

Meaning "pertaining to an empire" (especially Rome's) is from late 14c.; by 1774 of Britain's. Meaning "of imposing size or excellence" is from 1731. Imperial presidency in a U.S. context traces to Arthur Schlesinger Jr.'s book on the Nixon administration (1974). Related: Imperially. The noun is from 1520s as "member of the emperor's party;" 1670s as the name of gold coins issued by various imperial authorities.

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imperialist (n.)
c. 1600, "an adherent of an emperor or the imperial cause," such as the emperor of Germany (in the Thirty Years War), France, China, etc., probably modeled on French impérialiste (early 16c.); from imperial + -ist. The shift in meaning to "advocate of imperialism" (1893) came via the British Empire, which involved a worldwide colonial system. See imperialism. As a term of abuse in communist circles, attested by 1918. As an adjective by 1816.
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imperialism (n.)

1826, "advocacy of empire, devotion to imperial interests," originally in a Napoleonic context, also of Rome and of British foreign policy; from imperial + -ism. At times in British usage (and briefly in U.S.) with a neutral or positive sense relating to national interests or the spread of the benefits of Western civilization, but from the beginning usually more or less a term of reproach. General sense of "one country's rule over another," first recorded 1878. 

It is the old story of 1798, when French republicanism sick of its own folly and misdeeds, became metamorphosed into imperialism, and consoled itself for its incapacity to found domestic freedom by putting an iron yoke upon Europe, and covering it with blood and battle-fields. [Francis Lloyd, St. James's Magazine, January 1842]

The word sharpened its pejorative after 1900, with U.S. revulsion to Philippine insurrection and the publication of J.A. Hobson's book on imperialism, through which the term was taken up in the 1910s by communist writers.

Imperialism is a depraved choice of national life, imposed by self-seeking interests which appeal to the lusts of quantitative acquisitiveness and of forceful domination surviving in a nation from early centuries of animal struggle for existence. Its adoption as a policy implies a deliberate renunciation of that cultivation of the higher inner qualities which for a nation as for an individual constitutes the ascendency of reason over brute impulse. It is the besetting sin of all successful States, and its penalty is unalterable in the order of nature. [J.A. Hobson, "Imperialism: A Study," London, 1902]
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*pere- (1)

*perə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to produce, procure" and yielding and derived words in diverse senses; possibly related to *pere- (2) "to grant, allot."

It forms all or part of: ante-partum; apparatus; apparel; biparous; disparate; emperor; empire; heifer; imperative; imperator; imperial; juniper; multiparous; nulliparous; oviparous; para- (2) "defense, protection against; that which protects from;" Parabellum; parachute; parade; parados; parapet; parasol; pare; parent; -parous; parry; parturient; poor; post-partum; preparation; prepare; primipara; puerperal; rampart; repair (v.1) "to mend, put back in order;" repertory; separate; sever; several; spar (v.); viper; vituperation; viviparous.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit prthukah "child, calf, young of an animal;" Greek poris "calf, bull;" Latin parare "make ready, prepare," parire "produce, bring forth, give birth to;" Czech spratek "brat, urchin, premature calf;" Lithuanian periu, perėti "to brood;" Old High German farro, German Farre "bullock," Old English fearr "bull."

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labarum (n.)
the imperial standard adopted by Constantine, from Greek labaron, which is of unknown origin.
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Pekingese 

"small long-haired dog of the pug type," 1902, so called because originally brought from the Imperial Palace at Peking, China. Also Pekinese.

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Octobrist (n.)

1., from Russian oktyabrist, "member of the league formed October 1905 in response to imperial policies"; 2., from Russian Oktyabryonok, "member of a Russian communist children's organization founded 1925 and named in honor of the October Revolution." See October + -ist.

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empyreal (adj.)
late 15c., "pertaining to the highest heaven," from Medieval Latin empyreus, from Greek empyros "fiery," from assimilated form of en (see en- (2)) + pyr "fire" (from PIE root *paewr- "fire") + -al (1). Confused by early writers with imperial.
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Brunswick 
"town and former imperial province of northern Germany, an Anglicization of GermanBraunschweig, literally "Bruno's settlement," from Bruno + Old Saxon wik "village," which is from Latin (see wick (n.2)). Traditionally founded c. 861 and named for Bruno son of Duke Ludolf of Saxony.
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Lipizzan 
1911, from Lipizza, home of the former Austrian Imperial Stud; term used to designate horses originally bred there. The city is modern-day Lipica near Trieste in Slovenia (Lipizza is the Italian form of the name). Related: Lipizzaner.
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