Etymology
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icon (n.)

also ikon, 1570s, "image, figure, picture," also "statue," from Late Latin icon, from Greek eikon "likeness, image, portrait; image in a mirror; a semblance, phantom image;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," which is of uncertain origin. The specific Eastern Church sense is attested from 1833 in English. Computing sense first recorded 1982.

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iconology (n.)

"study of icons," 1736; see icon + -logy.

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iconography (n.)

1670s, "illustration by drawing or figures," from Medieval Latin iconographia, from Greek eikonographia "sketch, description," from eikon (see icon) + -graphia (see -graphy). Related: Iconographic; iconographer.

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iconic (adj.)

1650s, "of or pertaining to a portrait," from Late Latin iconicus, from Greek eikonikos "pertaining to an image," from eikon "likeness, image, portrait" (see icon). In art, applied to statues of victorious athletes, sovereigns, etc., 1801.

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emoticon (n.)

"pictorial representation of a facial expression using punctuation or other keyboard characters," by 1992, apparently from emotion + icon.

An emoticon is an emotional icon, or a pictorial representation of the emotions of the moment. These are most commonly created on one line using the symbols on the keyboard. Humor is often denoted with the smiley face :-) which is more obvious if you tilt your head to the left. ["Acronyms, Emoticons, and Lurkers," PC Magazine, August 1992]
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smiley (adj.)

also smily, "inclined to smile," 1848, from smile (n.) + -y (2). Smiley-face (n.) is from 1981; as a computer icon from 1987.

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iconoclasm (n.)

1797 in reference to an act of breaking or destroying idols physically; figuratively from 1858 in reference to beliefs, cherished institutions, etc.; see iconoclast. An older word for it was iconomachy (1580s), from Greek eikonomakhia (see -machy).

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iconoclastic (adj.)

1640s; see iconoclast + -ic. Related: Iconoclastically.

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iconoclast (n.)

"breaker or destroyer of images," 1590s, from French iconoclaste and directly from Medieval Latin iconoclastes, from Late Greek eikonoklastes, from eikon (genitive eikonos) "image" + klastes "breaker," from klas- past tense stem of klan "to break" (see clastic).

Originally in reference to those in the Eastern Church in 8c. and 9c. whose mobs of followers destroyed icons and other religious objects on the grounds that they were idols. Applied to 16c.-17c. Protestants in Netherlands who vandalized former Catholic churches on similar grounds. Extended sense of "one who attacks orthodox beliefs or cherished institutions" is first attested 1842.

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