Etymology
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hype (n.)
"excessive or misleading publicity or advertising," 1967, American English (the verb is attested from 1937), probably in part a back-formation of hyperbole, but also from underworld slang verb hype "to swindle by overcharging or short-changing" (1926), itself a back-formation from hyper "short-change con man" (1914), from the prefix hyper- meaning "over, to excess."

Also possibly influenced by drug addicts' slang hype, shortening of hypodermic needle (1913). Related: Hyped; hyping. In early 18c., hyp "morbid depression of the spirits" was colloquial for hypochondria (usually as the hyp or the hyps).
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hypochondria (n.)

"unfounded belief that one is sick," by 1816; a narrowing from the earlier sense "depression or melancholy without real cause" (1660s); from Middle English medical term ipocondrie "lateral regions of the upper abdomen" (late 14c.). This is from Late Latin hypochondria, from Greek hypokhondria (neuter plural of hypokhondrios), from hypo- "under" (see hypo-) + khondros "cartilage" (in this case, of the false ribs); see chondro-.

The sense "morbid melancholy" reflects the ancient belief that the viscera of the hypochondria (liver, gall bladder, spleen) were the seat of melancholy and the source of the vapors that caused such feelings. The attempt to put it on a scientific bases passes through hypochondriasis. Also see hype (n.). The poet Cowper is an oft-cited example in late 18c. literature. The focus of sense on the particular symptom "unfounded belief that one is sick" seems to begin 1790s with William Cullen, M.D., professor of physic in the University of Edinburgh, who made a specialty of the topic:

A languor, listlessness, or want of resolution and activity, with respect to all undertakings; a disposition to seriousness, sadness, and timidity; as to all future events, an apprehension of the worst or most unhappy state of them; and, therefore, often upon slight grounds an apprehension of great evil. Such persons are particularly attentive to the state of their own health, to every the smallest change of feeling in their bodies; and from any unusual sensation, perhaps of the slightest kind, they apprehend great danger, and even death itself. In respect to these feelings and fears, there is commonly the most obstinate belief and persuasion. [Cullen, "First Lines of the Practice of Physic," Edinburgh, 1791]

Though to Cullen the clinical definition of hypochondria also included physical symptoms and pains as well as these mental delusions. As the old medical beliefs faded, the word dropped from clinical use but remained in popular use for "groundless morbid fear for one's health." In the 1830s hypochondria could mean merely "morbid melancholy," also "apprehension of evil respecting health, without sufficient cause," and "upper abdomen."

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Barnum 
surname taken as the type of excessive hype and promotion, by 1850s, from circus owner P.T. Barnum (1810-1891), described in OED as "a pushing American show-proprietor." The surname is from the place-name Barnham.
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hip (n.1)
"part of the human body where pelvis and thigh join," Old English hype "hip," from Proto-Germanic *hupiz (source also of Dutch heup, Old High German huf, German Hüfte, Swedish höft, Gothic hups "hip"), of uncertain origin. In architecture, "external angle at the junction of two sides of a roof," from late 17c. Hip-flask, one meant to fit in a hip pocket, is from 1923. Related: Hips.
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ballyhoo (n.)
"publicity, hype," 1908, from circus slang, "a short sample of a sideshow" used to lure customers (1901), which is of unknown origin. The word seems to have been in use in various colloquial senses in the 1890s. To catch ballyhoo is attested from 1895 in sense "be in trouble." There is a village of Ballyhooly in County Cork, Ireland, (the Bally- is a common Irish place-name element meaning "a town, village") but no evident sense connection. In nautical lingo, ballahou or ballahoo (1867, perhaps 1836) was a sailor's contemptuous word for any vessel they disliked (from Spanish balahu "schooner"). As a verb from 1901 (implied in ballyhooer).
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hyperbaton (n.)
"figure of speech by which what should have been first according to the natural and grammatical order is put last, especially for the sake of emphasis," 1570s, from Greek hyperbaton, literally "overstepping," from hyper "over" (see hyper-) + bainein "to go, walk, step," from PIE root *gwa- "to go, come." Classical grammarians distinguish as many as seven kinds of it: Anastrophe, hysteron proteron, hypallage, synchysis, tmesis, parenthesis, and hyperbaton, strictly so called.
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hyperbolic (adj.)
1640s in rhetoric (iperbolical is from early 15c.), from Latin hyperbolic, from Greek hyperbolikos "extravagant," from hyperbole "extravagance," literally "a throwing beyond" (see hyperbole). Geometric sense is from 1670s, from hyperbola + -ic. Related: Hyperbolically.
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hyperextend (v.)
1863, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + extend. Related: Hyperextended; hyperextending; hyperextension.
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hypersensitive (adj.)
1827, a hybrid from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + sensitive. Related: Hypersensitivity; hypersensitiveness.
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hyperopia (n.)

"very acute vision," 1861, Modern Latin, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + Greek ōps "eye" (from PIE root *okw- "to see"), with abstract noun ending. Related: Hyperopic.

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