Etymology
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herring (n.)
north Atlantic food fish of great commercial value, Old English hering (Anglian), hæring (West Saxon), from West Germanic *heringgaz (source also of Old Frisian hereng, Middle Dutch herinc, German Hering), of unknown origin. Perhaps from a source related to or influenced in form by Old English har "gray, hoar," from the fish's color, or from the source of Old High German heri "host, multitude" in reference to its moving in large schools.

French hareng, Italian aringa are from Germanic. The Battle of the Herrings (French bataille des harengs) is the popular name for the action at Rouvrai, Feb. 12, 1492, fought in defense of a convoy of provisions, mostly herrings and other "lenten stuffe."
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herringbone 
also herring-bone, 1650s in literal sense and also as a type of stitch, from herring + bone (n.). From 1903 as a type of cirrocumulus cloud. Earlier as a type of masonry.
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red herring (n.)

"smoked herring" early 15c. (they turn red when cured), as opposed to white herring "fresh herring." Supposedly used by fugitives to put bloodhounds off their scent (1680s), hence metaphoric sense (1864) of "something used to divert attention from the basic issue;" earlier it simply meant "a false lead":

Though I have not the honour of being one of those sagacious country gentlemen, who have so long vociferated for the American war, who have so long run on the red-herring scent of American taxation before they found out there was no game on foot; (etc.) [Parliamentary speech dated March 20, 1782, reprinted in "Beauties of the British Senate," London, 1786]
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sprat (n.)
small European herring, 1590s, variant of sprot (c. 1300), from Old English sprott "a small herring," according to Klein related to Dutch sprot and probably connected to sprout (v.).
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tarpon (n.)
large fish (Megalops atlanticus) of the herring family, 1680s, of uncertain origin, probably from a Native American word. Also formerly called jew-fish.
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grundel (n.)
type of fish, c. 1500 (early 13c. as a surname), from grund "ground" (see ground (n.)) + -el (2). Compare Old English gryndle "herring;" grundling, type of fish, literally "groundling."
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alewife (n.)
herring-like fish of North America, 1630s, named from the word for female tavern keepers (late 14c.), from ale + wife; the fish so called in reference to its large abdomen.
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pilchard (n.)

fish of the herring family, 1540s, earlier pilcher (1520s), a word of unknown origin, with unetymological -d, perhaps by influence of words in -ard. Century Dictionary suggests Celtic origin, as the fish appear every July in great numbers on the Cornish coast; OED says the Irish word for them is from the English word.

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kipper (n.)
Old English cypera "male salmon," perhaps related to coper "reddish-brown metal" (see copper (n.1)), on resemblance of color. Another theory connects it to kip (n.) "sharp, hooked lower jaw of the male salmon in breeding season," which is from Middle English kippen "to snatch, tug, pull," but OED doubts this.

The modern noun usually is a shortening of kippered herring, from a verb meaning "to cure a fish by cleaning, salting, and spicing it" (early 14c.). The earliest attested uses of the verb are to preparing salmon, hence the verb. The modern noun kipper is recorded from 1773 of salmon, 1863 of herring.
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abdominal (adj.)

"pertaining to the abdomen, ventral," 1550s, from medical Latin abdominalis, from abdomen (genitive abdominis); see abdomen. As a noun, "abdominal muscle," by 1961 (earlier "abdominal vein," 1928);  earlier as a fish of the order including carp, salmon, and herring (1835), so called for their ventral fins. Related: Abdominally. English in 17c. had abdominous "big-bellied."

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