Etymology
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Hellenic (adj.)

"pertaining to Greece," 1640s, from Greek Hellēnikos "Hellenic, Greek," from Hellēn "a Greek," a word of unknown origin; traditionally from the name of an eponymous ancestor, Hellēn, son of Deucalion. To Homer the Hellenes were a small tribe in southern Thessaly (his word for one of the Greek-speaking peoples is our Achaean). In modern use in the arts, Hellenic is used of Greek work from the close of the primitive phase to the time of Alexander the Great or the Roman conquest (succeeded by the Hellenistic).

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Hellene (n.)

"an ancient Greek," 1660s, from Greek Hellēn "a Greek," a word of unknown origin (see Hellenic).

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Hellenism (n.)
c. 1600, "idiom or expression peculiar to Greek;" see Hellenic + -ism. In sense "culture and ideals of ancient Greece," 1865 (by Matthew Arnold, contrasted with Hebraism).
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Panhellenic (adj.)

also pan-Hellenic, 1819 in a modern context, "pertaining to or involving all the Greeks," from Greek Panhellēnes "all the Hellenes;" see pan- + Hellenic. From 1794 in reference to ancient Greece. Related: Panhellenism "desire to unite all the Greeks into one political body" (1844).

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philhellene (adj.)

1824, "a friend of Greece, a foreigner who supports and assists the cause of the Greeks," from Greek philhellēn, from philos "loving" (see philo-) + Hellēnes "the Greeks" (compare Hellenic). Originally in English in reference to the cause of Greek independence; later also with reference to Greek literature or language. Related: Philhellenic; Philhellenism.

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Athens 
city of ancient Attica, capital of modern Greece, from Greek Athenai (plural because the city had several distinct parts), traditionally derived from Athena, but probably assimilated from a lost name in a pre-Hellenic language.
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dithyramb (n.)

form of Greek choric composition, c. 1600, from Latin dithyrambus, from Greek dithyrambos, which is of unknown origin, perhaps a pre-Hellenic loan-word. A wild choric hymn, originally in honor of Dionysus or Bacchus, later of other gods, heroes, etc. Related: Dithyrambic.

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Syracuse 
city in Sicily, founded as a Corinthian colony, and with a name traceable to 8c. B.C.E., from a pre-Hellenic word, perhaps Phoenician serah "to feel ill," in reference to its location near a swamp. The city in New York, U.S., was named 1825 for the classical city.
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Pentecost 

Old English Pentecosten "Christian festival on seventh Sunday after Easter," from Late Latin pentecoste, from Greek pentekostē (hēmera) "fiftieth (day)," fem. of pentekostos, from pentekonta "fifty," from pente "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five"). The Hellenic name for the Old Testament Feast of Weeks, a Jewish harvest festival observed on 50th day of the Omer (see Leviticus xxiii.16).

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triumph (n.)
late 14c., "success in battle, conquest," also "spiritual victory" and "a procession celebrating victory in war," from Old French triumphe (12c., Modern French triomphe), from Latin triumphus "an achievement, a success; celebratory procession for a victorious general or admiral," from Old Latin triumpus, probably via Etruscan from Greek thriambos "hymn to Dionysus," a loan-word from a pre-Hellenic language.
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