"a gentile, a non-Jew" (plural goyim), 1835, from Hebrew goy "people, nation;" in Mishnaic and Modern Hebrew, also "gentile" (compare gentile). The fem. form of the Hebrew word entered French as gouge "a wench" (15c.).
Hebrew measure of capacity (a little over 5 pints), 1610s, from Hebrew 'omer.
"exposition or interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures," 1610s, from Hebrew (Semitic) midhrash, from darash "tread, frequent, seek, search, apply oneself to."