Etymology
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Black Hills 
South Dakota landform, translating Lakhota pahá-sapa; supposedly so called because their densely forested flanks look dark from a distance.
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go for (v.)
1550s, "be taken or regarded as," also "be in favor of," from go (v.) + for (adv.). Meaning "attack, assail" is from 1880. Go for broke is from 1951, American English colloquial.
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head shop (n.)
emporium for stoner gear, by 1969 (noted in 1966 as the name of a specific shop in New York City selling psychedelic stuff), from head (n.) in the drug sense.
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tit for tat 
1550s, possibly an alteration of tip for tap "blow for blow," from tip (v.3) "tap" + tap "touch lightly." Perhaps influenced by tit (n.2).
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head over heels (adv.)
1726, "a curious perversion" [Weekley] of Middle English heels over head (late 14c.) "somersault fashion," hence "recklessly." Head (n.) and heels long have been paired in alliterative phrases in English, and the whole image also was in classical Latin (per caput pedesque ire).
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fer de lance (n.)

large venomous snake of American tropics, 1817, from French, "lance-head," literally "iron of a lance." So called for its shape.

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per capita 

1680s, Latin, "by the head, by heads," from per (see per) + capita "head" (see capital).

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high hat (n.)
1839, "tall hat;" also used synechdochically for men who wear such hats; figurative meaning "swelled head" is from 1923. Drum set sense is from 1934.
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Rosh Hashanah (n.)
Jewish new year, 1846, from Hebrew rosh hashshanah, literally "head of the year," from rosh "head of" + hash-shanah "the year."
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capital letter (n.)
late 14c.; see capital (adj.). So called because it is at the "head" of a sentence or word.
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