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hazard (v.)

"put something at stake in a game of chance," 1520s, from French hasarder "to play at gambling, throw dice" (15c.), from hasard (see hazard (n.)). Related: Hazarded; hazarding.

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hazard (n.)
c. 1300, name of a game at dice, from Old French hasard, hasart "game of chance played with dice," also "a throw of six in dice" (12c.), of uncertain origin. Possibly from Spanish azar "an unfortunate card or throw at dice," which is said to be from Arabic az-zahr (for al-zahr) "the die." But this is doubtful because of the absence of zahr in classical Arabic dictionaries. Klein suggests Arabic yasara "he played at dice;" Arabic -s- regularly becomes Spanish -z-. The -d was added in French through confusion with the native suffix -ard. Sense evolved in French to "chances in gambling," then "chances in life." In English, sense of "chance of loss or harm, risk" first recorded 1540s.
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hazardous (adj.)

1580s, "venturesome;" 1610s, "perilous," from hazard (n.) + -ous or from French hasardeux (16c.).

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biohazard (n.)
also bio-hazard, "organic material that carries a significant health risk," 1973, from bio- + hazard (n.).
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haphazard (adj.)
"characterized by randomness, chance, accidental," 1670s, from noun meaning "a chance, accident" (1570s), from hap (n.) "chance, luck" + hazard (n.) "risk, danger, peril." Related: Haphazardly.
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risk (n.)

1660s, risque, "hazard, danger, peril, exposure to mischance or harm," from French risque (16c.), from Italian risco, riscio (modern rischio), from riscare "run into danger," a word of uncertain origin.

The Englished spelling is recorded by 1728. Spanish riesgo and German Risiko are Italian loan-words. The commercial sense of "hazard of the loss of a ship, goods, or other properties" is by 1719; hence the extension to "chance taken in an economic enterprise."

Paired with run (v.) from 1660s. Risk aversion is recorded from 1942; risk factor from 1906; risk management from 1963; risk-taker from 1892.

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compromise (v.)

mid-15c., "to adjust or settle by mutual concessions," also intransitive, "to make a compromise," from compromise (n.). Meaning "expose to risk or hazard, endanger the reputation of" is from 1690s. Also formerly in the same sense was compromit (early 15c.), from Latin compromittere. Related: Compromised; compromising.

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peril (n.)

"danger, risk, hazard, jeopardy, exposure of person or property to injury, loss, or destruction," c. 1200, from Old French peril "danger, risk" (10c.), from Latin periculum "an attempt, trial, experiment; risk, danger," with instrumentive suffix -culum and first element from PIE *peri-tlo-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk."

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stake (v.2)

"to risk, wager, put at hazard or risk upon a future contingency," 1520s, perhaps from the notion of "place a gambling wager on a post" or generally "put up something to be won or lost at a wager" (see stake (n.2)), though Weekley suggests "there is a tinge of the burning or baiting metaphor" in this usage. Related: Staked; staking.

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aleatory (adj.)
"of uncertain outcome, depending on a contingent event," literally "depending on the throw of a die," 1690s, from Latin aleatorius "pertaining to a gamester," from aleator "a dice player," from alea "a game with dice; chance, hazard, risk; a die, the dice;" perhaps literally "a joint-bone" (marked knuckle-bones used as early dice), "a pivot-bone," and related to axis. Aleatoric "incorporating chance and randomness" was used as a term in the arts from 1961.
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