Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to strike," an extended sense from root *per- (1) "forward, through."
It forms all or part of: compress; depress; espresso; express; impress (v.1) "have a strong effect on the mind or heart;" imprimatur; imprint; oppress; oppression; pregnant (adj.2) "convincing, weighty, pithy;" press (v.1) "push against;" pressure; print; repress; reprimand; suppress.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to think," with derivatives referring to qualities and states of mind or thought.
It forms all or part of: admonish; Ahura Mazda; ament; amentia; amnesia; amnesty; anamnesis; anamnestic; automatic; automaton; balletomane; comment; compos mentis; dement; demonstrate; Eumenides; idiomatic; maenad; -mancy; mandarin; mania; maniac; manic; mantic; mantis; mantra; memento; mens rea; mental; mention; mentor; mind; Minerva; minnesinger; mnemonic; Mnemosyne; money; monition; monitor; monster; monument; mosaic; Muse; museum; music; muster; premonition; reminiscence; reminiscent; summon.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit manas- "mind, spirit," matih "thought," munih "sage, seer;" Avestan manah- "mind, spirit;" Greek memona "I yearn," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer;" Latin mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lithuanian mintis "thought, idea," Old Church Slavonic mineti "to believe, think," Russian pamjat "memory;" Gothic gamunds, Old English gemynd "memory, remembrance; conscious mind, intellect."
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to breathe."
It forms all or part of: anemo-; anemometer; anemone; anima; animadversion; animadvert; animal; animalcule; animalistic; animate; animation; animatronic; anime; animism; animosity; animus; Enid; equanimity; longanimity; magnanimous; pusillanimous; unanimous.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit aniti "breathes;" Greek anemos "wind;" Latin animus "rational soul, mind, life, mental powers, consciousness, sensibility; courage, desire," anima "living being, soul, mind, disposition, passion, courage, anger, spirit, feeling;" Old Irish anal, Welsh anadl "breath," Old Irish animm "soul;" Gothic uzanan "to exhale," Old Norse anda "to breathe," Old English eðian "to breathe;" Old Church Slavonic vonja "smell, breath;" Armenian anjn "soul."
also *ghebh-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to give or receive." The basic sense of the root probably is "to hold," which can be either in offering or in taking.
It forms all or part of: able; avoirdupois; binnacle; cohabit; cohabitation; debenture; debit; debt; dishabille; due; duty; endeavor; exhibit; exhibition; forgive; gavel; gift; give; habeas corpus; habiliment; habit; habitable; habitant; habitat; habitation; habitual; habituate; habituation; habitude; habitue; inhabit; inhibit; inhibition; malady; prebend; prohibit; prohibition; provender.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit gabhasti- "hand, forearm;" Latin habere "to have, hold, possess," habitus "condition, demeanor, appearance, dress;" Old Irish gaibim "I take, hold, I have," gabal "act of taking;" Lithuanian gabana "armful," gabenti "to remove;" Gothic gabei "riches;" Old English giefan, Old Norse gefa "to give."
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cook, ripen."
It forms all or part of: apricot; biscuit; charcuterie; concoct; concoction; cook; cuisine; culinary; decoct; decoction; drupe; dyspepsia; dyspeptic; eupeptic; kiln; kitchen; peptic; peptide; peptone; precocious; pumpkin; ricotta; terra-cotta.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit pakvah "cooked, ripe;" Avestan -paka- "cooked;" Greek peptein "to cook, ripen, digest," pepon "ripe;" Latin coquere "to cook, prepare food, ripen, digest, turn over in the mind," Oscan popina "kitchen;" Lithuanian kepti "to bake, roast;" Old Church Slavonic pecenu "roasted;" Welsh poeth "cooked, baked, hot."
c. 1500, "a sharp, piercing sound or cry," expressive of pain, alarm, etc., from scream (v.).
And (as they say) lamentings heard i' th' Ayre; Strange Schreemes of Death. ["Macbeth," II.iii.61]
That spelling probably reflects "sk-" as spelled in words from Latin (such as school; see sch); his early editions also have schreene for screen. The slang meaning "something very great, excellent, or exciting," especially "something that evokes a cry of laughter" is by 1888; screamer in this sense is from 1831.
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to grasp."
It forms all or part of: accept; anticipate; anticipation; behave; behoof; behoove; cable; cacciatore; caitiff; capable; capacious; capacity; capias; capiche; capstan; caption; captious; captivate; captive; captor; capture; case (n.2) "receptacle;" catch; catchpoll; cater; chase (n.1) "a hunt;" chase (v.) "to run after, hunt;" chasse; chasseur; conceive; cop (v.) "to seize, catch;" copper (n.2) "policeman;" deceive; emancipate; except; forceps; gaffe; haft; have; hawk (n.); heave; heavy; heft; incapacity; inception; incipient; intercept; intussusception; manciple; municipal; occupy; participation; perceive; precept; prince; purchase; receive; recipe; recover; recuperate; sashay; susceptible.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kapati "two handfuls;" Greek kaptein "to swallow, gulp down," kope "oar, handle;" Latin capax "able to hold much, broad," capistrum "halter," capere "to grasp, lay hold; be large enough for; comprehend;" Lettish kampiu "seize;" Old Irish cacht "servant-girl," literally "captive;" Welsh caeth "captive, slave;" Gothic haban "have, hold;" Old English hæft "handle," habban "to have, hold."
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to taste; to choose." It forms words for "taste" in Greek and Latin, but its descendants in Germanic and Celtic mostly mean "try" or "choose." The semantic development could have been in either direction.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit jus- "enjoy, be pleased;" Avestan zaosa- "pleasure," Old Persian dauš- "enjoy;" Greek geuesthai "to taste;" Latin gustare "to taste, take a little of;" Old English cosan, cesan, Gothic kausjan "to test, to taste of," Old High German koston "try," German kosten "taste of."
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "be master of, possess."
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit ise, iste "he owns, rules," isvara- "owner, lord, ruler;" Avestan ise, is "ruler over," isti- "property, power;" Old English agan "to have, own."
also kaka-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to defecate." According to Watkins, "imitative of glottal closure during defecation."
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek kakke "human excrement," Latin cacare, Irish caccaim, Serbo-Croatian kakati, Armenian k'akor; Old English cac-hus "latrine."
Etymologists dispute whether the modern Germanic words (Dutch kakken, Danish kakke, German kacken), are native cognates or student slang borrowed from Latin cacare. Caca appears in Modern English in slang c. 1870, and could have been taken from any or several of the languages that used it.