Etymology
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hamlet (n.)
early 14c., from Old French hamelet "small village," diminutive of hamel "village," itself a diminutive of ham "village," from Frankish *haim or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *haimaz "home" (from PIE root *tkei- "to settle, dwell, be home"); for ending, see -let. Especially a village without a church.
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*tkei- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to settle, dwell, be home."

It forms all or part of: Amphictyonic; hamlet; hangar; haunt; home; site; situate; situation; situs.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kseti "abides, dwells;" Armenian shen "inhabited;" Greek kome, Lithuanian kaimas "village;" Old Church Slavonic semija "domestic servants;" Old English ham "dwelling place, house, abode," German heim "home," Gothic haims "village."
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tref (n.)
Welsh, literally "hamlet, home, town," from PIE *treb- "dwelling" (see tavern).
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Villanova 
European culture of the early Iron Age, 1901, named for a hamlet near Bologna where archaeological remains of it were found.
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Guggenheim (n.)
grant for advanced study, from the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, established 1925 by U.S. Sen. Simon Guggenheim (1867-1941) in memory of his son, who died young. The senator's brother was an arts patron who founded the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1937, which grew into the Guggenheim Museum of modern art. The surname is German, said to mean literally "swamp hamlet" or "cuckoo hamlet."
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beetle (v.)
"project, overhang," apparently a Shakespearean back-formation (in "Hamlet," 1602) from bitelbrouwed "grim-browed, sullen" (mid-14c.), from bitel "sharp-edged, sharp" (c. 1200), probably a compound from Old English *bitol "biting, sharp" (related to bite (v.)), + brow, which in Middle English meant "eyebrow," not "forehead." Meaning "to overhang dangerously" (of cliffs, etc.) is from c. 1600. Related: Beetled; beetling.
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rivet (v.)

early 15c., riveten, "to fasten (something) with rivets," also "to fasten (a nail or bolt) by hammering down the rivet," from rivet (n.). Figurative meaning "to command the attention" is from c. 1600 (For I mine eyes will rivet to his Face - "Hamlet"). Related: Riveted; riveting.

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out-herod (v.)

"exceed in any excess of evil," from Shakespeare's it out-Herods Herod in Hamlet's instruction to the players in "Hamlet" Act III, Scene II. Shakespeare used the same construction elsewhere ("All's Well that Ends Well" has out-villain'd villany). The phrase reflects the image of Herod as stock braggart and bully in old religious drama. The form of the phrase was widely imitated 19c. and extended to any excessive behavior.

Oh, it offends me to the soul to hear a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundlings, who for the most part are capable of nothing but inexplicable dumb-shows and noise: I would have such a fellow whipped for o'erdoing Termagant; it out-herods Herod: pray you, avoid it. ["Hamlet"]
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pooh 

1590s, "a 'vocal gesture' expressing the action of puffing anything away" [OED], used as an exclamation of dislike, scorn, or contempt, first attested in Hamlet Act I, Scene III, where Polonius addresses Ophelia with, "Affection! pooh! you speak like a green girl, / Unsifted in such perilous circumstance. / Do you believe his tenders, as you call them?" But the "vocal gesture" is perhaps ancient.

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Alzheimer's disease (n.)
senium præcox, 1912, the title of article by S.C. Fuller published in "Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases;" named for German neurologist Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915). The disease name was not common before 1970s; shortened form Alzheimer's first recorded 1954. The surname is from the place name Alzheim, literally "Old Hamlet."
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