Etymology
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guitar (n.)

lute-like musical instrument, 1620s, from French guitare, which was altered by Spanish and Provençal forms from Old French guiterre, earlier guiterne, from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara "cithara," a triangular seven-stringed musical instrument related to the lyre, perhaps from Persian sihtar (see sitar).

In post-classical times, the ancient instrument developed in many varieties in different places, keeping a local variant of the old name or a diminutive of it. Some of these local instruments subsequently became widely known, and many descendants of kithara reached English in reference to various stringed, guitar-like instruments: citole, giterne (both early 14c.), gittern, cithern (1560s), cittern (1590s), cither (c. 1600), guitar, and zither.

Modern guitar also is directly from Spanish guitarra (14c.), which ultimately is from the Greek. The Arabic word is perhaps from Spanish or Greek, though often the relationship is said to be the reverse. The modern guitar is one of a large class of instruments used in all countries and ages but particularly popular in Spain and periodically so in France and England. Other 17c, forms of the word in English include guittara, guitarra, gittar, and guitarre.

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zither (n.)
stringed musical instrument, 1850, from German Zither, from Old High German zitara, from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara (see guitar).
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gittern (n.)
old wire-strung instrument like a guitar, late 14c., from Old French guiterne, obscurely from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara (see guitar).
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kit (n.2)
"small fiddle used by dancing teachers," 1510s, probably ultimately a shortening of Old English cythere, from Latin cithara, from Greek kithara (see guitar).
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cithara (n.)

ancient stringed musical instrument, 1789, from Latinized form of Greek kithara (see guitar). Related: Citharist.

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raunch (n.)

"crudeness, earthiness," 1963 (in Billboard magazine, describing lead guitar on surf music tracks), back-formation from raunchy. There was a singing group in U.S. c. 1960 called the Raunch Hands.

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fretless (adj.)
1878, "without annoyance," from fret (n.) (see fret (v.)) + -less. By 1962 as "without frets" (of a banjo, guitar, etc.), from fret (n.2).
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barre (adj.)
1876, in reference to chords played on a guitar, etc., with the forefinger pressed across all strings to raise the pitch, from French barré "bar" (see bar (n.1)).
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resonator (n.)

1869, instrument or chamber formed to respond to a single tone, agent noun in Latin form from resonate (v.). By 1897 in the general sense of "object which resonates." A resonator guitar (by 1943; the thing itself developed from 1920s) produces sound by means of spun metal cones (resonators). 

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