1912 in reference to the system of education through free but guided play that was devised 1907 by Italian educationist Maria Montessori (1870-1952).
1970, proprietary name of a rocket-propelled short-range guided missile, trademarked 1970 by Société Nationale Industrielle Aerospatiale, from French exocet "flying fish" (16c.), from Latin exocoetus, from Greek exokoitos "sleeping fish, fish that sleeps upon the beach," from exō "outside" (see exo-) + koitos "bed."
"airship," 1885, short for dirigible balloon, from dirigible (adj.) "that may be directed, controlled, or steered" (1580s), from French dirigeable "capable of being directed or guided," from Latin dirigere "to set straight" (see direct (v.)).
1560s, originally in medicine, "pertaining to or derived from experience or experiments," from Latin empiricus (n.) "a physician guided by experience," from Greek empeirikos "experienced," from empeiria "experience; mere experience or practice without knowledge," especially in medicine, from empeiros "experienced (in a thing), proven by use," from assimilated form of en "in" (see en- (2)) + peira "trial, experiment," from PIE *per-ya-, suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk." With -al (1). In a general sense of "guided by mere experience" from 1757. Related: Empirically (1640s as "by means of observation and experiment").
1792, from Arabic mahdiy, literally "he who is guided aright," past participle of hada "to lead in the right way." In Islamic belief, a spiritual and temporal leader destined to appear on earth during the last days. Applied c. 1880 to insurrectionary leaders in the Sudan who claimed to be him. Related: Mahdism; Mahdiism; Mahdian.