Etymology
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great (adj.)

Old English great "big, tall, thick, stout, massive; coarse," from West Germanic *grauta- "coarse, thick" (source also of Old Saxon grot, Old Frisian grat, Dutch groot, German groß "great"). If the original sense was "coarse," it is perhaps from PIE root *ghreu- "to rub, grind," via the notion of "coarse grain," then "coarse," then "great;" but "the connextion is not free from difficulty" [OED].

It took over much of the sense of Middle English mickle, and itself now is largely superseded by big and large except in reference to non-material things. In the sense of "excellent, wonderful" great is attested from 1848.

Great White Way "Broadway in New York City" is from 1901, in reference to brilliant street illumination. The Great Lakes of North America so called by 1726, perhaps 1690s. Great Spirit "high deity of the North American Indians," 1703, originally translates Ojibwa kitchi manitou. The Great War originally (1887) referred to the Napoleonic Wars, later (1914) to what we now call World War I (see world).

"The Great War" — as, until the fall of France, the British continued to call the First World War in order to avoid admitting to themselves that they were now again engaged in a war of the same magnitude. [Arnold Toynbee, "Experiences," 1969]

Also formerly with a verb form, Old English greatian "to become enlarged," Middle English greaten "to become larger, increase, grow; become visibly pregnant," which became archaic after 17c.

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great-hearted (adj.)
"of noble courage," late 14c., from great (adj.) + -hearted.
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Britannic (adj.)
"of or pertaining to Great Britain," 1640s, from Latin Britannicus, from Britannia (see Britain).
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Britisher (n.)
"native or inhabitant of Great Britain," 1829, from British + -er (1).
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British (adj.)
Old English Bryttisc "of or relating to (ancient) Britons," from Bryttas "natives of ancient Britain" (see Briton). Meaning "of or pertaining to Great Britain" is from c. 1600; the noun meaning "inhabitants of Great Britain" is from 1640s. British Empire is from c. 1600. First modern record of British Isles is from 1620s. British English as the form of the English language spoken in Britain is by 1862 (George P. Marsh). Related: Britishness.
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hegemon (n.)

1897, originally with reference to the position of Great Britain in the world, from Greek hēgemon "an authority, leader, sovereign" (see hegemony).

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