Etymology
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golf (v.)
c. 1800, from golf (n.). Related: Golfed; golfing.
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golf (n.)

mid-15c., Scottish gouf, usually taken as an alteration of Middle Dutch colf, colve "stick, club, bat," from Proto-Germanic *kulth- (source also of Old Norse kolfr "clapper of a bell," German Kolben "mace, club, butt-end of a gun"). The game is from 14c., the word is first mentioned (along with fut-bol) in a 1457 Scottish statute on forbidden games (a later ordinance decrees, "That in na place of the realme thair be vsit fut-ballis, golf, or vther sic unprofitabill sportis" [Acts James IV, 1491, c.53]). Despite what you read on the internet, "golf" is not an acronym (this story seems to date back no earlier than 1997). Golf ball attested from 1540s; the motorized golf-cart from 1951. Golf widow is from 1890.

Oh! who a golfer's bride would be,
Fast mated with a laddie
Who every day goes out to tee
And with him takes the caddie.
["The Golf Widow's Lament," in Golf magazine, Oct. 31, 1890]
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link (n.3)
"undulating sandy ground," especially in a golf course; see links.
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lie (n.2)
"manner of lying, relative position," 1690s, from lie (v.2). Sense in golf is from 1857.
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sand-trap (n.)
1838, "device for filtering out impurities," from sand (n.) + trap (n.). As "a golf bunker" from 1906.
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foursome (n.)
"four in company," early 14c., from four + -some (2). Specific golf sense is from 1858.
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upswing (n.)
1922, in golf, from up (adv.) + swing (n.). Sense in economics is attested from 1934.
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mashie (n.)

in golf, "straight-faced niblick," (Linskill's "Golf," 1889, calls it "a cross between a niblick and a lofting-iron"), historical version of a modern five iron, 1881, mashy, from Scottish, probably named for a mason's hammer, from French massue "club," from Vulgar Latin *mattiuca, from Latin mateola "a tool for digging" (see mace (n.1)). Related: Mashie-niblick (1903).

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follow-through (n.)
1896, of golf swings, from verbal phrase follow through; see follow (v.) + through (adv.). Figurative use from 1926.
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