Etymology
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geography (n.)

"the science of description of the earth's surface in its present condition," 1540s, from French géographie (15c.), from Latin geographia, from Greek geographia "description of the earth's surface," from geo- "earth" + -graphia "description" (see -graphy).

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geographer (n.)
"one versed in geography," 1540s, from geography + agent noun ending -er (1). The Greek word was geographos (Medieval Latin geographus).
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biogeography (n.)
also bio-geography, "science of the distribution of living things in different regions," 1892, from bio- + geography. Related: Biogeographical.
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geographical (adj.)
"pertaining to geography," 1550s, from Late Latin geographicus (from Greek geographikos, from geographia; see geography) + -al (1). Related: Geographically.
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Baja 
in place names (such as Baja California), Spanish baja, literally "lower," either in elevation or geography.
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circumpolar (adj.)

"surrounding one of the celestial or terrestrial poles," 1680s in astronomy; 1690s in geography, from circum- "around" + polar.

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oceanography (n.)

"the science of the oceans," 1859, coined in English from ocean + -graphy; on analogy of geography. French océanographie is attested from 1580s but is said to have been rare before 1876. Related: Oceanographic.

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Australasia 
1766 in geography, from French Australasie (De Brosses, 1756), "Australia and neighboring islands," also used later in zoology in a somewhat different sense (with reference to Wallace's line); see Australia + Asia. Related: Australasian.
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ethnology (n.)

"science of the characteristics, history, and customs of the races of mankind," 1832, from ethno- + -logy, perhaps modeled on French or German. Related: Ethnologist; ethnological.

Ethnology is a very modern science, even later than Geology, and as yet hardly known in America, although much cultivated latterly in Germany and France, being considered an indispensable auxiliary to history and geography. ["Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge," Philadelphia, summer 1832]
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Amsterdam 
principal city of the Netherlands; the name is a reference to the dam (see dam (n.1)) built on the Amstel river. The river name is said to be from Germanic elements ama "current" and stelle "place." Prevalence of dam in Dutch place names (Rotterdam, Edam, etc.) reflects the geography of Holland. In rhyming slang, "ram" (e.g. for one who "butts in" a queue).
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