"a heavy blow," 1805, from bash (v.). Meaning "an attempt" is attested by 1945. On a bash "on a drunken spree" is slang from 1901, which gave the word its sense of "a wild party."
also sheikh, "head of an Arab family," also "head of a Muslim religious order," and later also a general title of respect, 1570s, from Arabic shaykh "chief," literally "old man," from base of shakha "to grow old." Popularized by "The Sheik," the 1919 novel in an Arabian setting by E.M. Hull, and the movie version, "The Sheikh" (1921), starring Rudolph Valentino, which gave the word its colloquial sense of "strong, romantic lover." The word gave French fits: Old French had it as seic, esceque, and later forms included scheik, cheikh.
"publisher's inscription at the end of a book," 1774, from Late Latin colophon, from Greek kolophōn "summit, final touch" (from PIE root *kel- (2) "to be prominent; hill"). "In early times the colophon gave the information now given on the title page" [OED].
1580s, muphtie "official head of the state religion in Turkey," from Arabic mufti "judge," active participle (with formative prefix mu-) of afta "to give," conjugated form of fata "he gave a (legal) decision" (compare fatwa).
"official who calls Muslims to prayer from the minaret of a mosque," 1580s, from Arabic muadhdhin, properly active participle of adhdhana, frequentative of adhanna "he proclaimed," from uthn "ear." Compare Hebrew he'ezin "he gave ear, heard," from ozen "ear." The English spelling is from dialectal use of -z- for -dh-.