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Gaia (n.)

Earth as a goddess, from Greek Gaia, spouse of Uranus, mother of the Titans, personification of gaia "earth" (as opposed to heaven), "land" (as opposed to sea), "a land, country, soil;" it is a collateral form of (Dorian ga) "earth," which is of unknown origin and perhaps from a pre-Indo-European language of Greece. The Roman equivalent goddess of the earth was Tellus (see tellurian), sometimes used in English poetically or rhetorically for "Earth personified" or "the Earth as a planet."

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geo- 

word-forming element meaning "earth, the Earth," ultimately from Greek geo-, combining form of Attic and Ionic "the earth, land, a land or country" (see Gaia).

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hypogean (adj.)

"living below the ground," 1803, from Greek hypogeios "underground," from hypo "under" (see hypo-) + "earth" (see Gaia). Opposed to epigean.

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Pangaea 

"supercontinent of the late Paleozoic era," 1924, from Greek pan- "all" (see pan-) + gaia "earth" (see Gaia). First attested in German, 1920, in Alfred Wegener's "Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane" (but according to OED the word is not found in 1914 first edition).

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geomancy (n.)

"art of divination by means of signs derived from the earth," late 14c., from Old French géomancie, from Medieval Latin geomantia, from late Greek *geomanteia, from geo-, combining form of "earth" (see Gaia) + manteia "divination" (see -mancy). Related: Geomantic; geomantical.

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georgic (n.)

"poem of rural or agricultural life," 1510s, Georgics, title of Virgil's poems on rural life, from Latin georgica, from georgicus (adj.), from Greek georgikos "of a husbandman, agricultural," from "earth" (see Gaia) + -ourgia "a working," from ergon "work" (from PIE root *werg- "to do"). As an adjective meaning "related to agriculture" from 1711.

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geodesy (n.)

1560s, "the art of land surveying," from Modern Latin geodaesia, from Greek geodaisia "division of the earth;" ultimately from "earth" (see Gaia) + stem of daiein "to divide," from PIE *dai-, extended form of root *da- "to divide." In modern use it refers to mathematical calculations derived from measuring large portions of the earth's surface. In this sense, in reference to structures, from 1936.

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geophagy (n.)

"dirt-eating," 1820, from Greek *geophagia (according to OED the actual Greek is geotragia), from geo-, combining form of "earth" (see Gaia) + phagein "to eat." See also pica (n.2).

A diseased appetite ... prevails in several parts of Alabama, where they eat clay. I heard various speculations on the origin of this singular propensity, called 'geophagy' in some medical books. [Lyell, "Second Visit to U.S.," 1850]
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geometry (n.)

early 14c., also gemetrie, gemetry, from Old French geometrie (12c., Modern French géométrie), from Latin geometria, from Greek geometria "measurement of earth or land; geometry," from combining form of "earth, land" (see Gaia) + -metria "a measuring of" (see -metry). Old English used eorðcræft "earth-craft" as a loan-translation of Latin geometria.

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