Etymology
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fountain (n.)

early 15c., "spring of water that collects in a pool," from Old French fontaine "natural spring" (12c.), from Medieval Latin fontana "fountain, a spring" (source of Spanish and Italian fontana), from post-classical noun use of fem. of Latin fontanus "of a spring," from fons (genitive fontis) "spring (of water)," from PIE root *dhen- (1) "to run, flow" (source also of Sanskrit dhanayati, Old Persian danuvatiy "flows, runs").

The extended sense of "artificial jet of water" (and the structures that make them) is first recorded c. 1500. Hence also fountain-pen (by 1823), so called for the reservoir that supplies a continuous flow of ink. "A French fountain-pen is described in 1658 and Miss Burney used one in 1789" [Weekley]. Fountain of youth, and the story of Ponce de Leon's quest for it, seem to have been introduced in American English by Hawthorne's "Dr. Heidegger's Experiment" (January 1837).

"Did you never hear of the 'Fountain of Youth'?" asked Dr. Heidegger, "which Ponce de Leon, the Spanish adventurer, went in search of two or three centuries ago?"
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fountainhead (n.)
also fountain-head, "spring from which a stream flows," 1580s, from fountain + head (n.). Figurative use is from c. 1600.
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fount (n.)

"spring of water," 1590s, probably a shortening of fountain influenced by French font "fount." Figurative use also is from 1590s.

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font (n.1)
"water basin," especially used in baptism, late Old English, from Latin fons (genitive fontis) "fountain" (see fountain), especially in Medieval Latin fons baptismalis "baptismal font." The word is sometimes used poetically for "a fountain; a source."
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fontanelle (n.)
also fontanel, 1540s, "hollow between two muscles," from French fontanelle (16c.), from Old French fontenele "small source, fountain, spring; fontanelle," diminutive of fontaine "spring" (see fountain), on analogy of the dent in the earth where a spring arises. In reference to the "hollow" in a baby's skull, it is first recorded 1741.
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Hippocrene 

fount on Mount Helicon sacred to the Muses, its waters were held to bestow poetic inspiration, from Greek Hippokrene, earlier hippou krene, literally "horse's fountain," from genitive of hippos "horse" (from PIE root *ekwo- "horse") + krēnē "fountain," which is of uncertain origin.

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pegomancy (n.)

"divination by fountains," 1727, from Latinized form of Greek pēgē "fountain, spring" (a word of unknown origin, possibly Pre-Greek) + -mancy "divination by means of."

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bourn (n.1)
also bourne, "small stream," especially of the winter torrents of the chalk downs, Old English brunna, burna "brook, stream," from Proto-Germanic *brunnoz "spring, fountain" (source also of Old High German brunno, Old Norse brunnr, Old Frisian burna, German Brunnen "fountain," Gothis brunna "well"), ultimately from PIE root *bhreu- "to boil, bubble, effervesce, burn." The southern England form of northern burn.
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spa (n.)
"medicinal or mineral spring," 1620s, from the name of the health resort in eastern Belgium, known since 14c., that features mineral springs believed to have curative properties. The place name is from Walloon espa "spring, fountain." As "commercial establishment offering health and beauty treatments," 1960.
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keld (n.)
"a spring," 1690s, limited to northern dialect, but frequent in place names; from Old Norse kelda "a well, fountain, spring," also "a deep, still, smooth part of a river," from a Germanic verbal root represented by German quellen "to swell, spring, gush."
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