early 15c., "increase efficacy" (of medicine); mid-15c., "provide (a town) with walls and defenses," from Old French fortifiier (14c.) "to fortify, strengthen," from Late Latin fortificare "to strengthen, make strong," from Latin fortis "strong" (see fort) + combining form of facere "to make" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Sense of "to strengthen mentally or morally" is from late 15c. Meaning "add liquor or alcohol" is from 1880; meaning "add nutrients to food" is from 1939. Related: Fortified; fortifying.
early 15c., "a strengthening," also "defensive earthworks; a tower" (mid-15c.), from Old French fortification "strengthening, fortification," from Late Latin fortificationem (nominative fortificatio) "a strengthening, fortifying," noun of action from past-participle stem of fortificare "to make strong" (see fortify).
1510s, "to enclose with a fence;" c. 1600 as "to enclose or fortify with an embankment;" see mound (n.). From 1859 as "to heap up." Related: Mounded; mounding.
c. 1300, fermen "make firm, establish," from Old French fermer "consolidate; fasten, secure; build, set up; fortify" (12c.) or directly from Latin firmare "make firm; affirm; strengthen, fortify, sustain; establish, prove, declare," from firmus "strong, steadfast, stable" (see firm (adj.)). Intransitive use, "become firm" is from 1879; with up (adv.) from 1956. Related: Firmed; firming.
"earthen elevation around a place for fortification," capable of resisting cannon shot and sometimes also including parapets, 1580s, from French rempart, rampart, from remparer "to fortify," from re- "again" (see re-) + emparer "fortify, take possession of," from Old Provençal amparer, from Vulgar Latin *anteparare "prepare," properly "to make preparations beforehand," from Latin ante "before" (from PIE root *ant- "front, forehead," with derivatives meaning "in front of, before") + parare "to get, prepare" (from PIE root *pere- (1) "to produce, procure"). With unetymological -t in French, perhaps by influence of boulevart (see boulevard).
"furnished with turrets and battlements," 1670s, from Medieval Latin castellatus "built like a castle," past participle of castellare "to fortify as a castle, build as a castle, furnish with turrets and battlements," from Latin castellum "castle, fort, citadel, stronghold" (see castle (n.)). Related: Castellation.
1745, "to enclose or fortify with pointed stakes," from picket (n.). Meaning "to place or post as a guard of observation" is by 1775. The sense in labor strikes, protests, etc., is attested from 1867. Related: Picketed; picketing.
1580s, "enclose with walls, shut up, confine," from French emmurer and directly from Medieval Latin immurare, literally "to shut up within walls," from assimilated form of in- "into, in" (from PIE root *en "in") + Latin murus "wall" (see mural). Military sense of "fortify" is from 1590s. Related: Immured; immuring; immurement.
chess move involving the king and the rook, recorded under this name from 1650s, from castle (n.), as an old alternative name for the rook. Earlier, the verb meant "fortify (a place) with castles" (c. 1500); "provide (a ship) with fortified towers" (c. 1400); "decorate (a dish) with paper towers, etc." (late 14c.). Related: Castled; castling.