Etymology
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fight (n.)
Old English feohte, gefeoht "a fight, combat, hostile encounter;" see fight (v.). Compare Old Frisian fiucht, Old Saxon fehta, Dutch gevecht, Old High German gifeht, German Gefecht. Meaning "power or inclination to fight" is from 1812.
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fight (v.)

Old English feohtan "to combat, contend with weapons, strive; attack; gain by fighting, win" (intransitive; class III strong verb; past tense feaht, past participle fohten), from Proto-Germanic *fe(u)hta (source also of Old High German fehtan, German fechten, Middle Dutch and Dutch vechten, Old Frisian fiuhta "to fight"), probably from PIE *pek- (2) "to comb, to pluck out" wool or hair (source also of Lithuanian pėšti"to pluck," Greek pekein "to comb, shear," pekos "fleece, wool;" Persian pashm "wool, down," Latin pectere "to comb," Sanskrit paksman- "eyebrows, hair"). Apparently the notion is "pulling roughly," or "to tear out one another's hair." But perhaps it is from the source of Latin pugnus "fist."

Spelling substitution of -gh- for a "hard H" sound was a Middle English scribal habit, especially before -t-. In some late Old English examples, the middle consonant was represented by a yogh. Among provincial early Modern English spellings, Wright lists faight, fate, fecht, feeght, feight, feit, feyght, feyt, feort, foight.

From c. 1200 as "offer resistance, struggle;" also "to quarrel, wrangle, create a disturbance." From late 14c. as "be in conflict." Transitive use from 1690s. To fight for "contest on behalf of" is from early 14c. To fight back "resist" is recorded from 1890. Well figt þat wel fligt ("he fights well that flies fast") was a Middle English proverb.

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fire-fight (n.)
also firefight, 1850, from fire (n.) in the military sense + fight (n.). A fight with guns and firearms (as opposed to hand-to-hand, etc.).
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bull-fight (n.)
also bullfight, 1753, from bull (n.1) + fight (n.). Related: Bull-fighter; bull-fighting.
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gunfight (n.)
also gun-fight, a combat with handguns, 1889, American English, from gun (n.) + fight (n.). Related: Gunfighter.
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pashmina (adj.)

1885, from Persian pashmin "woolen," from pashm "wool, down," from PIE *pek- "to pluck out" (see fight (v.)).

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fighting (n.)
early 13c., "act of engaging in combat," verbal noun from fight (v.). Old English had feohtlac (n.) "fighting, battle." Nautical fighting-top "platform near the top of a mast for small-arms fire" is from 1890.
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fighter (n.)
Old English feohtere; agent noun from fight (v.). Compare Dutch vechter, German Fechter. Old English also had feohtling in this sense. Meaning "fast military airplane used for combat" is from 1917.
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fighting (adj.)
"qualified or trained to fight," mid-14c., present-participle adjective from fight (v.). Fighting chance is from 1877; fighting mad is attested by 1750; fighting words is by 1882. Fighty "pugnacious" is attested from c. 1200.
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fought 
past tense and past participle of fight (v.). The past participle form foughten (Old English fohten) has been archaic since 18c. but occasionally appears in the phrase foughten field.
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