Etymology
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fifty (adj., n.)

"1 more than forty-nine, twice twenty-five; the number which is one more than forty-nine; a symbol representing this number;" Old English fiftig "fifty; a set of fifty," from fif "five" (from PIE root *penkwe- "five") + -tig "group of ten" (see -ty (1)). Compare Old Frisian fiftich, Old Norse fimm tigir, Dutch vijftig, Old High German fimfzug, German fünfzig, Gothic fimf tigjus. U.S. colloquial fifty-fifty "in an even division" is from 1908.

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fifties (n.)
1826 as the years of someone's life between 50 and 59; 1853 as the sixth decade of years in a given century. See fifty.
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fiftieth (adj., n.)

"next in order after the forty-ninth; an ordinal numeral; being one of fifty equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" Old English fifteogoða "fiftieth;" see fifty + -th (1). Compare Old Norse fimmtugande, and, with a different suffix, Old Frisian fiftichsta, Dutch vijftigste, Old High German fimfzugsto, German fünfzigste.

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sixty (adj., n.)

"1 more than fifty-nine, twice thirty; the number which is one more than fifty-nine; a symbol representing this number;" Old English sixtig, from siex (see six) + -tig (see -ty (1)). Similar formation in Old Norse sextugr, sextögr, sextigir, Old Frisian sextich, Middle Dutch sestig, Dutch zestig, Old High German sehszug, German sechzig. Phrase sixty-four dollar question is attested from 1942, from a radio quiz show where that was the top prize.

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sixtieth (adj., n.)

"next in order after the fifty-ninth; an ordinal numeral; being one of sixty equal parts into which a whole is regarded as divided;" Old English sixteogoða "sixtieth;" see sixty + -th (1).

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dreamboat (n.)

"romantically desirable person," 1947, from dream (n.) + boat (n.). The phrase was in use about two decades before that. "When My Dream Boat Comes Home" was the title of a 1936 song credited to Guy Lombardo and "Dream Boat" was the title of a 1929 book.

It is rare indeed that a designer ever has the opportunity to build his dream boat. Chris Smith, all his life, had held in mind a boat of about fifty feet overall which would be the last word in yacht design and performance. [Motor Boating, December 1929]
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necropsy (n.)

"post-mortem examination," 1839, from necro- "death, corpse" + opsis "a sight" (from PIE root *okw- "to see"). As a verb, recorded from 1889. Alternative necroscopy is attested from 1820.

This term [necroscopy] was first proposed by M. Vaidy (late of Paris, now of Lille). A single term is desirable to express the inspection of the dead body; and the one in question will form an euphonic adjective and adverb — as necroscopic, necroscopical— which adds to the conveniences. — Its derivation is evident (nekros, a corpse' and skopeo, to inspect.) [William Hutchinson, footnote in "Proëmium to the Fifty-Third Volume of The London Medical and Physical Journal," 1820]
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doughnut (n.)

"small, spongy cake made of dough and fried in lard," 1809, American English, from dough + nut (n.), probably on the notion of being a small round lump (the holes came later; they are first mentioned c. 1861). First recorded by Washington Irving, who described them as "balls of sweetened dough, fried in hog's fat, and called doughnuts, or olykoeks."

Earlier name for it was dough-boy (1680s). Bartlett (1848) meanwhile lists doughnuts and crullers among the types of olycokes, a word he derives from Dutch olikoek, literally "oil-cake," to indicate a cake fried in lard.

The ladies of Augusta, Maine, set in operation and carried out a novel idea, namely, the distribution of over fifty bushels of doughnuts to the Third volunteer regiment of that State. A procession of ladies, headed by music, passed between double lines of troops, who presented arms, and were afterwards drawn up in hollow square to receive from tender and gracious hands the welcome doughnation. [Frazar Kirkland, "Anecdotes of the Rebellion," 1866]

Meaning "a driving in tight circles" is U.S. slang, 1981. Compare also donut.

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rayon (n.)

type of manufactured fiber, 1924, chosen by National Retail Dry Goods Association of America, probably from French rayon "beam of light, ray," from rai (see ray (n.1)) and so called because it is shiny. A marketer's alternative to the original patented name, artificial silk (1884) and the other marketing attempt, Glos, which was "killed by ridicule" [Draper's Record, June 14, 1924].

[T]he production of rayon in American plants, which in 1920 had been only eight million pounds, had by 1925 reached fifty-three million pounds. The flesh-colored stocking became as standard as the short skirt. ... No longer were silk stockings the mark of the rich; as the wife of a workingman with a total family income of $1,638 a year told the authors of Middletown, "No girl can wear cotton stockings to high school. Even in winter my children wear silk stockings with lisle or imitations underneath." [Frederick Lewis Allen, "Only Yesterday," 1931]

By coincidence, Old French rayon had been borrowed into Middle English centuries earlier as a name for a type of cloth.

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saturation (n.)

1550s, "act of supplying to fullness, complete satisfaction of an appetite" (Coverdale, a sense now obsolete), formed in English from saturate (q.v.), or else from Late Latin saturationem (nominative saturatio) "a filling, saturating," noun of action from past-participle stem of saturare "to fill full."

The sense in chemistry is by 1670s, "impregnation until no more can be received;" the general sense of "action of thoroughly soaking with fluid, condition of being soaked" is by 1846. By 1964 in reference to a type of color adjustment on a television screen; earlier it had been used in chromatics for "degree of intensity" (1878). Saturation bombing is from 1942 in reference to mass Allied air raids on Cologne and other German cities; the idea is credited to Arthur Harris.

"Saturation bombing," dropping as much as fifty-one tons a minute, depends on clockwork precision and a gigantic organization behind the lines. In the famous German raid on Coventry, 225 tons were dropped over a period of eight hours. In the British raid on Hamburg on July 27-28, 1943, more than 2,300 tons were dropped in forty-five minutes. A single raid of this type uses more than 100,000 air and ground personnel. [British Information Services, "The First Four Years," 1943]
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