Etymology
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fatherland (n.)
"one's native country," 1620s, from father (n.) + land (n.). In modern use often a loan-translation of German Vaterland, itself a loan-translation of Latin patria (terra), literally "father's land." Similar formation in Dutch vaderland, Danish fædreland, Swedish fädernesland. Late Old English/Middle English fæderland (c. 1100) meant "parental land, inheritance."
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fatherless (adj.)
Old English fæderleas; see father (n.) + -less. Similar formation in Dutch vaderloos, German vaterlos, Danish faderlös.
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fatherly (adj.)
Old English fæderlic "fatherly, paternal; ancestral;" see father (n.) + -ly (1). Similar formation in Dutch vaderlijk, German väterlich. Related: Fatherliness.
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Father's Day 
1910, begun in Spokane, Washington, U.S., but not widespread until 1940s; an imitation of Mother's Day.
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fathom (n.)

Old English fæðm "length of the outstretched arms" (a measure of about six feet), also "arms, grasp, embrace," and, figuratively "power," from Proto-Germanic *fathmaz "embrace" (source also of Old Norse faðmr "embrace, bosom," Old Saxon fathmos "the outstretched arms," Dutch vadem "a measure of six feet"), from PIE *pot(ə)-mo-, suffixed form of root *pete- "to spread." It has apparent cognates in Old Frisian fethem, German faden "thread," which OED explains by reference to "spreading out." As a unit of measure, in an early gloss it appears for Latin passus, which was about 5 feet.

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fathom (v.)
Old English fæðmian "to embrace, surround, envelop," from a Proto-Germanic verb derived from the source of fathom (n.); cognates: Old High German fademon, Old Norse faþma. The meaning "take soundings" is from c. 1600; its figurative sense of "get to the bottom of, penetrate with the mind, understand" is from 1620s. Related: Fathomed; fathoming.
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fathomable (adj.)
1630s, figurative; 1690s, literal; from fathom (v.) + -able.
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fathomless (adj.)
1630s, literal ("bottomless"); 1640s, figurative ("not to be comprehended"); from fathom + -less.
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fatigue (n.)
1660s, "that which causes weariness," from French fatigue "weariness," from fatiguer "to tire" (15c.), from Latin fatigare "to weary, to tire out," originally "to cause to break down," from pre-Latin adjective *fati-agos "driving to the point of breakdown," with first half from Old Latin *fatis, which is of unknown origin but apparently related to affatim (adv.) "sufficiently" and to fatisci "crack, split." The second half is the root of agere "to set in motion, drive; to do, perform" (from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").

Especially "the labors of military persons" (1776). Meaning "a feeling of weariness from exertion" is from 1719. Of metals or other materials under strain, from 1877.
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