Etymology
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explore (v.)

1580s, "to investigate, examine," a back-formation from exploration, or else from French explorer (16c.), from Latin explorare "investigate, search out, examine, explore," said to be originally a hunters' term meaning "set up a loud cry," from ex "out" (see ex-) + plorare "to weep, cry." Compare deplore. De Vaan notes modern sources that consider "the ancient explanation, ... that the verb explorare originally meant 'to scout the hunting area for game by means of shouting'" to be "not unlikely." Second element also is explained as "to make to flow," from pluere "to flow." Meaning "to go to a country or place in quest of discoveries" is first attested 1610s. Related: Explored; exploring.

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unexplored (adj.)
1690s, from un- (1) "not" + past participle of explore (v.).
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explorer (n.)
1680s, agent noun from explore. Replaced earlier exploratour (mid-15c.).
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exploratory (adj.)

mid-15c., "intended for exploration or scouting," from Latin exploratorius "belonging to scouts," from explorator "scout," from explorare "investigate, examine" (see explore). Alternative explorative is from 1738; explorational is from 1889.

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exploration (n.)

"act of exploring, examination, or investigation," especially for the purpose of discovery and specifically of an unknown country or part of the earth, 1540s, from French exploration and directly from Latin explorationem (nominative exploratio) "an examination," noun of action from past-participle stem of explorare "investigate, examine" (see explore). Alternative explorement is from 1640s.

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scout (v.1)
late 14c., "observe or explore as a scout, travel in search of information," from Old French escouter "to listen, heed" (Modern French écouter), from Latin auscultare "to listen to, give heed to" (see auscultate). Related: Scouted; scouting.
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spelunker (n.)
"a cave bug; one who explores caves as a hobby," 1942, agent noun formed from obsolete spelunk "cave, cavern." The verb spelunk "explore caves" and the verbal noun spelunking are attested from 1946 and appear to be back-formations.
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Indus 

river in Asia, from Sanskrit sindhu "river." The constellation was one of the 11 added to Ptolemy's list in the 1610s by Flemish cartographer Petrus Plancius (1552-1622) after Europeans began to explore the Southern Hemisphere; it represents "an Indian," not the river.

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Hydrus 

"fabulous water serpent," 1660s, from Latin Hydrus, from Greek hydros "water-snake" (see hydra). The constellation (attested by 1670s in English) was one of the 11 added to Ptolemy's list in the 1610s by Flemish cartographer Petrus Plancius (1552-1622) after Europeans began to explore the Southern Hemisphere.

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prospect (v.)

"explore for gold or other minerals, examine land with a view to a mining claim," 1841, from prospect (n.) in specialized sense of "spot giving prospects of ore" (1832). Earlier in a now-obsolete sense of "look forth, look out over" (1550s), from Latin prospectare, frequentative of prospicere. Related: Prospected; prospecting.

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