Etymology
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exceed (v.)

late 14c., exceden, "to go beyond," from Old French exceder (14c.) "exceed, surpass, go too far," from Latin excedere "depart, go beyond, be in excess, surpass," from ex "out" (see ex-) + cedere "to go, yield" (from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield"). Related: Exceeded; exceeding. Exceedingly (late 15c.) means "very greatly or very much;" excessively (mid-15c.) means "too greatly or too much."

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excessive (adj.)

"exceeding the usual or proper limit, degree, measure, or proportion; going beyond what is sanctioned by correct principles; immoderate; extravagant; unreasonable;" late 14c., from Old French excessif "excessive, oppressive," from Latin excess-, past-participle stem of excedere "to depart, go beyond" (see exceed). Related: Excessively; excessiveness.

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cede (v.)

1630s, "to yield, give way," from French céder or directly from Latin cedere "to yield, give place; to give up some right or property," originally "to go from, proceed, leave," from Proto-Italic *kesd-o- "to go away, avoid," from PIE root *ked- "to go, yield."

Original sense in English is now archaic; transitive sense "yield or formally surrender (something) to another" is from 1754. The sense evolution in Latin is via the notion of "to go away, withdraw, give ground." Related: Ceded; ceding.

Latin cedere, with prefixes attached,  is the source of a great many English words: accede, concede, exceed, precede, proceed, recede, secede, etc.

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*ked- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to go, yield."

It forms all or part of: abscess; accede; access; ancestor; antecede; antecedent; cease; cede; cession; concede; decease; exceed; excess; incessant; intercede; necessary; precede; predecessor; proceed; recede; recess; recession; secede; secession; succeed; success.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit sedhati "to drive, chase away;" Avestan apa-had- "turn aside, step aside;" Latin cedere "to yield, give place; to give up some right or property," originally "to go from, proceed, leave;" Old Church Slavonic chodu "a walking, going," choditi "to go."
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outlast (v.)

"to last longer than, exceed in duration," 1570s, from out- + last (v.). Related: Outlasted; outlasting.

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outnumber (v.)

"to number more than, exceed in number," 1660s, from out- + number (v.). Related: Outnumbered; outnumbering.

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outdo (v.)

also out-do, "exceed, surpass, perform beyond," c. 1600, from out- + do (v.). Related: Outdone, outdoing.

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beggar (v.)
"reduce to poverty," mid-15c., from beggar (n.). From c. 1600 as "exceed the means of," hence "to outdo." Related: Beggared; beggaring.
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outweigh (v.)

"exceed in weight, be heavier than," also figurative, "surpass in gravity or importance," 1590s, from out- + weigh (v.). Related: Outweighed; outweighing.

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overstep (v.)

Old English ofersteppan "to step over or beyond; cross, exceed;" see over- + step (v.). From the beginning used in figurative senses. Related: Overstepped; overstepping.

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