Etymology
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equivalent (adj.)

early 15c., "equal in value, power, or effect," from Late Latin aequivalentem (nominative aequivalens) "equivalent," present participle of aequivalere "be equivalent," from Latin aequus "equal" (see equal (adj.)) + valere "be well, be worth" (from PIE root *wal- "to be strong"). As a noun from c. 1500, "that which is equal or corresponds to." Related: Equivalently.

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equivalence (n.)

"equality in value, correspondence in signification, force, nature, etc.," 1540s, from French équivalence, from Medieval Latin aequivalentia, from Late Latin aequivalentem "equivalent" (see equivalent). Related: Equivalency (1530s).

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*wal- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be strong."

It forms all or part of: ambivalence; Arnold; avail; bivalent; convalesce; countervail; Donald; equivalent; evaluation; Gerald; Harold; invalid (adj.1) "not strong, infirm;" invalid (adj.2) "of no legal force;" Isold; multivalent; polyvalent; prevalent; prevail; Reynold; Ronald; valediction; valence; Valerie; valetudinarian; valiance; valiant; valid; valor; value; Vladimir; Walter; wield.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin valere "be strong, be well, be worth;" Old Church Slavonic vlasti "to rule over;" Lithuanian valdyti "to have power;" Celtic *walos- "ruler," Old Irish flaith "dominion," Welsh gallu "to be able;" Old English wealdan "to rule," Old High German -walt, -wald "power" (in personal names), Old Norse valdr "ruler."

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Jean 
masc. proper name, French equivalent of John (q.v.). The fem. proper name is from the French equivalent of Jane. Related: Jeanette.
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donna (n.)

"a lady," 1660s, from the common title of respect for Italian and Portuguese ladies, equivalent to Spanish doña, prefixed to the Christian name. The fem. equivalent of don (n.).

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megawatt (v.)

unit of measure equivalent to one million watts, 1885, from mega- "one million" + watt.

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climatology (n.)

"scientific study of climates," 1803, from climate + -ology.  In 19c., more or less equivalent to meteorology

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fowler (n.)
Old English fugelere, agent noun from fuglian "to hunt fowl" (see fowl (v.)). The German equivalent is Vogler.
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encroachment (n.)
mid-15c., "obtruding structure," from encroach + -ment, or an equivalent Old French compound.
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gyno- 
word-forming element especially in modern medical and botanical words equivalent to gyneco-.
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